It feels homey and this invites that comfort and trust from us. Then, as we move into our second paragraph, I'm seeing a lot of exclamation marks, which gives me the sense of this upbeat, exciting environment, or even tone you could say. I think she's doing this because she wants us to jump on board with cashless payments as well, and to not see them as something that's a burden for us.
By the way, I'm not going to write down all the language analysis, because I think there's just not enough space, but me chatting about it with you is good enough. Let's move onto the next paragraph. Not only is she highlighting the advantage. Here, she's arguing for the advantages of cashless payments by showing you the inconveniences of having cash in phrases like 'you won't need to' and 'you won't ever have to'.
I also like the phrase 'rummaging through your bags for coins'. It gives this sense of how cumbersome the nature of physical money is in comparison to cashless payments. In the next paragraph, she highlights cashless payments with the words 'Simple!
She finishes off this paragraph with a 'Welcome to the twenty-first century. A lot of us like to think of ourselves as people who are open-minded, open to change and will take up things that are better for us, things that are more convenient for us.
So, she's saying that this is it for twenty-first century, join us over here rather than way back when, when we had to use coins. She also highlights 'mobile phone[s]', 'smart watch', 'smart ring' - many things that a lot of people have and this just compounds that idea of, 'yeah, this is a no brainer' essentially. Why shouldn't you move to cashless payments if you're already immersed in this tech world of having mobile phones, smart watches, smart rings, etc.? She moves into talking about the wider economic context of Australia in this next paragraph.
That sense of time I was talking about, comparing the now - the twenty-first century - with a decade ago, you can see that link right here. It's very obvious now. She creates a strong impression of societal inevitability of this technological change, especially because she cites statistics - '70 per cent of household spending was in cash; now it's half of that. I like that she's bringing in Australia because it also brings in this additional sense of pride on our behalf.
We're Australians, we're proud that we've been one of the biggest users of electronic payments in the world, we're the ones who are making waves, we're the ones who are putting our feet forward first. So, you could talk about appeal to patriotism here as well. It's interesting because here she says that she's a leader, or. What do you think when you think of a leader?
Typically for me, I admire leaders. They're somebody I look up to and I want to follow in their footsteps essentially. I like the word 'breeze through', or just 'breeze' because it connects again, back to this idea of convenience with a faster shopping experience, and it is juxtaposed against that cumbersomeness of 'rummaging through Something to think about is: as you analyse an article, you don't just have to analyse it chronologically or talk about it chronologically in your essay either.
If you see things that connect later on, connect them in your essay and put them together, because what you're showing your examiner is that you can see not just the minor details - i. Think about that in a two-step method. There's the zoom in where we're looking at sentence by sentence and what techniques are there, which is basically what we've been doing, but at the same time, you can zoom out and have a look at how the different techniques all come together and work as a whole.
If this is something that you're not too comfortable with just yet, just stick with the chronological order and working through the sort of minor details. And then on your next read, you can read through with the focus of, 'okay, what if I was to look at this from a more holistic perspective? I didn't even look ahead enough, there are more words and more phrases that connect to the idea of convenience and ease.
There's a new appeal. It's not necessarily new, it's just a different angle you could come from. If you wanted to talk about the sense of security, that appeal to safety, then you could do that as well. I love when they do this, acknowledging the opposition essentially is what she's doing. Some of you don't. This not only pulls along the people who are already supportive of her, but she's also trying to pull along those who are a little bit more sceptical of this idea of cashless payments.
So let's see, she says,. It's interesting because she is again, building up this position of hers, where she is friendly, she is helpful, she is thoughtful and she cares about her community. Something you could also say, and this is if you're looking at things more pessimistically, is that she's doing this more so for herself.
By saying that these people have three months, there's this unspoken pressure that's happening as well. She's putting pressure on the minority and emphasising the supposed inevitability of a cash-free shopping experience. Even by just saying 'minority' that's in a way applying pressure as well, because it's saying that you are part of this smaller group, the smaller group of people who won't come with us or have not yet come with us, so join us.
There's a very clear expectation that these customers need to adapt and catch up. If you want more, I have also got a fully written up essay based on the articles that we're analysing today in my How To Write A Killer Language Analysis study guide.
Plus, there's heaps of sample A-plus essays in there already and heaps of information that I think will be super helpful for you before you move into your SAC. So please, go ahead and check that out. The purpose of a Text Response essay is to show an understanding of a text through analysis. So, it is natural that your essay is marked based on the quality of your analysis of the text. While this may be true in theory, the reality is that your introduction serves as a foundation for your analysis In other words, the introduction sets the direction for your essay, which overall acts as a backbone allowing for a cogent argument to be presented in your piece.
Especially when writing under timed conditions, it can be difficult to produce a detailed plan which lays out the structure of an essay. Here's where your intro can be of great help. When considered carefully, your introduction can set the parameters within which your essay will be contained. In other words, your intro can define the scope of your essay, outlining which themes and characters you are going to explore, and most importantly what arguments you are going to posit throughout your script.
This means that if you get lost, or go blank trying to figure out what you should write next you can refer back to your intro to find a sense of direction and regain a foothold in your essay and. In this way, the intro not only acts as a foundation for your body-paragraphs but also provides a blueprint for them which can guide you from point to point.
At the same time, although an introduction cannot explicitly earn you marks, I would argue that a quality introduction can help position your assessor to immediately categorise your essay as belonging in a higher mark bracket. At the end of the year, exam assessors have hundreds of scripts to mark. And the truth is, they will not dedicate more than a couple of minutes to read your essay. As such, if you can impress your assessor with a powerful opening, they are more likely to see your piece as one that should earn a high mark.
The reality is that assessors can often tell a lot about an essay based on the quality of its introduction. What is crucial, then, is that from the very first line of your introduction you are responding directly and unswervingly to the topic. I would suggest trying to avoid starting with a cliche contextual statement in favour of a bold response to the topic.
Consider opening with a quote which captures your take on the topic. Whether it is between African and Afrikaner or Trojan and Achaean, the capacity for human understanding is upheld as paramount to overcome societal fissures.
These specific ideas should essentially signpost the distinct arguments you are going to present in each of your body paragraphs. This means that the ideas you flag for discussion in your intro, should be logically connected to both the prompt and each other, and you should aim to outline these connections. The specific ideas which you offer set the parameters for the rest of your essay, so it is a good idea to ensure that these insights take into consideration the implications of the key-terms of the topic, and attempt to take the topic further.
This allows you to consider the text in a sophisticated and conceptual way while maintaining rock-solid links to the topic. Ultimately, the introduction provides you with a great opportunity to show off to your assessors that you can write incisively, fluently, and with confidence. The book is a memoir, meaning that it is based around a recollection of her life and filtered through her psyche and experiences.
Although these communities largely don't exist anymore, what they once described was suburban environments where only Anglo-Australians lived. Clarke meets her first tormenter - Carlita Allen. In fact, it intensifies, aided and abetted by teachers who consistently turn a blind eye to the constant, gut-wrenching racial abuse. Upon informing the teacher that her mother is an actor, and her father is a Mathematics Professor - the first British citizen of Afro-Carribean descent to attend a British university - she is met with the patronising assumption that she must be lying.
Clarke also develops eczema during her primary school years, leaving patches of lighter-coloured skin covering her face, and a newfound hope that, bit by bit, God is answering her prayers and making her white. In high school, the racist rot sets in even further.
Clarke develops a new habit for scratching her skin at night to the point of bleeding and bruising. It is this stage of her life when Clarke deals with one of the most difficult parts of being a minority in a majority white country. Through her interactions with teachers, friends and boyfriends alike, she becomes deeply angry at those people who abhor racism themselves, but seem unable to step in when racist events are actually occurring.
Whether intentional or not, these comments still hurt, and are still part of the challenges of growing up black in a white country. Nonetheless, Clarke continues to rise above the odds, becoming a prolific high school debater, maintaining her position at the top of the academic cohort, and forming a small but tight-knit group of friends whom she can trust. In a note to the family, he provides no explanation other than that he had a secret affair for many years.
Suddenly, Clarke, her brothers, sisters and mother are left to pick up the pieces. In the epilogue, Clarke is now an adult with a child of her own. Clarke portrays it as the dual sadness and happiness of knowing that, in Australia, her children will surely have access to more opportunity than in most parts of the world - but it will come at a cost.
Namely, they will also have to contend with the remaining undercurrent of racism that, even now, still seeps through Australian society. The unsatisfying end to the novel reflects the nature of racism and the experience of a minority growing up in a white country itself: there is no happy ending. The movie is set in the wake of the Northern Territory Intervention.
The intervention also involved restricting alcohol consumption, quarantining a portion of welfare payments to Indigenous residents with the justification that this would prevent it being spent on alcohol, pornography, cigarettes, etc. It is important to note that, throughout the whole intervention, not a single person was prosecuted for child sexual abuse or any related offence.
Signs of the intervention are all around - alcohol is banned from most communities, many individuals face personal bans on procuring alcohol, police officers dot the streets and citizens live under constant watch. Rolf de Heer takes us through an increasingly concerning image of Aboriginal communities in the wake of the intervention.
Charlie visits his local housing officer and is unable to obtain a house. Here, we see that Charlie is willing to work and wants stable accommodation, but the government is unwilling to provide. Yet again, two Indigenous men try to provide for themselves - but are stopped by a legal system more concerned with rules and procedure than listening to First Nations communities themselves.
Abandoning the car, he tries to live amongst nature for an unidentified amount of time. Cooking fish, performing traditional First Nations dances, painting on the bark and looking for shelter, Charlie finally appears to be home. Dragged before the courts, Charlie is imprisoned for assault. When the judge asks him to make a comment, he gives a lengthy speech in his native language. Eventually, Charlie is released on parole. He expresses a deep desire to go home - but also a sense of defeat.
He resolves, in the end, to believe that even if he will always live under the watchful eyes of the Australian Government, he can at least fight back and contribute by doing his bit to maintain the many cultures of our First Nations Peoples. Charlie teaches young Indigenous boys traditional dances, speaking proudly of when he performed a dancing ceremony for Queen Elizabeth in at the Sydney Opera House.
The movie ends with Charlie staring mournfully into the camera, almost looking at the audience themselves. There seems to be no happiness in his eyes - nothing left but a sense of sadness and resignation. I know that, upon approaching the end of the film, I started to feel the same sadness that Charlie so evidently shows us.
This standard has deep roots in the colonisation of Australia, and the resulting claim of sovereignty by the Crown. It is in this context that de Heer and Clarke go to special lengths to explain why people should be empowered to connect to their culture. To our author and director, culture is an essential element of who you are, and it is this identity which carries people through life.
For Maxine, the shock of realising that she may be the descendant of African slaves, and had lived so many years without having any idea this may be the case, is drawn from the fact that she, as a child, feels incredibly disconnected to who she is.
With his friend slowly dying of lung cancer, at that moment, the old man is more connected to the cigarettes that slowly sapped his life away than he is to the First Nations way of living. It is a shocking reminder that, without culture, people are left like driftwood swimming through a vast ocean. By that, I mean that people are left without an anchor through which they can independently experience the world.
Instead, their understanding of themselves, their sense of self and their actions in life are all filtered through the preferences of the dominant majority. We could spend days talking about this, but, simply, intergenerational disadvantage refers to cycles of poverty and criminality that pass from generation to generation, worsening with time. Suddenly, that part-time job you had that was helping you save money might be the only income for the entire family. You might even have to drop out of school, TAFE or university to care for everyone, denying you a higher paying job in the future.
Charlie lives in a community where there is no opportunity. Lung cancer and alcoholism shorten lifespans for people like the old man with failing kidneys, while no employer is going to waste a chance on those still living. Instead, Bordeaux Clarke is the epitome of someone who has broken the cycle of intergenerational disadvantage; becoming the first individual in his community to attend a British university. Although Maxine experiences terrible discrimination and prejudice as a child, there is always a sense that she will academically remain on top.
Ultimately, the difference between the two is a matter of emphasis. By developing your own interpretation, you become a better English student by:. To overcome the issues above, you need to be confident with your own interpretation of the text. A Structural Features Analysis and Comparison goes over a lot of the same material, and will help elevate your essays to the next level. The title of a text is always significant - and this text pairing is no different.
First, of course, please do keep in mind that there is no universally accurate interpretation of what a title means. What this title signifies is that, for minorities in Australia, life is constantly akin to a race. It is in this context that racism, for Clarke, is not just a reality that lurks beneath the surface, but rather, a guiding tenet of Australia since With this overarching narrative, it is also important to acknowledge that the mere experience of racism is immensely emotionally, physically and mentally taxing for Clarke, and all people of colour.
This sorrowful reality is what engenders the never ending race against being consumed by such hatred, because, for non-white Australians, there simply is no other choice. If they stop running, they run the risk of being consumed by the hatred themselves and becoming so cynical and disillusioned that they forget their culture and accede to the Anglocentric, white majority. Whatever Anglo Australia does, it cannot change the continuing legacy of his people and their sovereignty.
He may not have any legal authority under the Crown, and his people may be dispossessed of their sovereignty and authority, but this cannot and will not change the remaining truth of First Nations sovereignty. Learn more about this technique in this video:. This is a quote-based prompt, meaning the quote must feature somewhere in your essay. Ensure that you have a good understanding of the place from which the quote is drawn.
The quote from The Hate Race is the last line of the memoir, with Clarke expressing the sentiment that her children belong in Australia and will be as strong as their parents. The next part is to establish the link between the quote and the topic.
The essay topic at hand asks us how 'freedom' is understood, so we need to actually understand freedom itself in relation to the quotes provided. Rather, freedom is found when people have the ability to be themselves, own their culture and live their truth.
For Charlie, that mainly relates to his right to live in his country and maintain the traditional ways of the First Nations Peoples. Clarke, however, is more focused on the balancing act of finding freedom through a multicultural society that includes all, and in doing so celebrates the contribution that all cultures make into the melting pot that is Australia.
However, I find it consistently helpful to follow a chronological structure. This refers to going through events of the memoir and film in the order they actually occur, and finding unique points of analysis based around these chronological groupings. We also need to think of examples and points of comparison. Paragraph 1 — unable to experience freedom because systems exist to stop individuals from embracing their own culture.
Paragraph 2 — attempts at pushback are rebuffed, resulting in further punishment for the simple crime of failing to conform. Paragraph 3 — finding cultural freedom is a slow process of change, but one that begins with self acceptance. Happy learning! Hey guys. Welcome back to Lisa's Study Guides. Right now, it's in the middle of December, and I know that most of you should have finished school by now, and you're enjoying your school holidays.
Because it is summer holidays, and most people aren't really studying right now, this is for the truly keen beans, the people who are reading the text before the school starts, which, by the way, you should be doing. I'll pop that video in a card up above and so if you are studying Burial Rites, then this video is for you. If you're not, as always, it doesn't really matter because the type of advice that I will be giving would definitely be relevant to any text, because it's more about your thinking and how you actually go around approaching essay topics.
This book covers the last few months of her life, living with these people who she's sharing her story with. She has been sentenced because she has murdered Natan. And although we first initially hear that she has murdered this guy, when we start to hear her story develop, that's when we start to see that there are shades of gray.
That she did have reason behind what she did, and you can start to feel quite sympathetic towards her. At the same time, though, and this is what today's essay question will be about. There's a lot to do with the patriarchy. Agnes being not just a woman, but an intelligent woman, was something that was looked down upon, and people were scared of that.
That's just to give you a little bit of context so that we can start this essay topic. What are the keywords here? To me, they are women, no power, patriarchy and dominates. These words really stand out to me, and these are the words that I feel are necessary for me to focus on in order to answer this prompt properly. The second step that I do is I define keywords.
So what I do here is I try to understand what the keywords mean and also their implications. So this is how I'm going to break down this essay prompt. I am going to do two body paragraphs where I agree and one body paragraph where I disagree. So this should mean that I'm only agreeing to a certain extent. Here's a video about this type of essay structure and response:. So my first body paragraph is yes, under male authority, the women are robbed of freedom and power.
My example for that would be Agnes, who is the protagonist. She is a woman who's being sentenced to death for murdering Natan, more about him later, and, as a result, society condemns her and she's robbed of her identity and freedom. My second body paragraph would be another agreement, but this time I'm going to focus on the men. In this second body paragraph, my argument is men hold exploitative power over women.
One, Natan, the person who was murdered, toys with all his whores, demonstrating male dominance in s Iceland. All his workmaids are stranded, shipwrecked with nowhere else to go, highlighting women's hopelessness in changing their situation. Additionally, there's Blondal. So Blondal is a government authority and he's torn when commanding Lauga, Lauga, not too sure how to say that.
You guys let me know. The third one is one where I disagree. Here will be that there are rare instances of female empowerment in the novel. The first one will be Rosa, the poet. So Rosa has an affair with Natan, but Kent praises Rosa and she's described to be a wonderful woman and beautiful. Rosa transcends patriarchal structures, as she is assertive, headstrong, going against social codes in an act of female empowerment. The second one will be Agnes. Her storytelling and ability to express what she is inside allows her to gain a voice in the patriarchal world that has silenced her.
Through her storytelling, she asserts her self-worth and dignity and despite the fact that she has been locked down, she is being treated like crap by the men, her ability to hold herself strong and to be able to face her death with dignity means that with some sense, at least from within, that sense of empowerment has not been completely diminished. This is a novel about the experiences of children recovering from polio inside a convalescent home in Perth. With a sympathetic and warm approach, London tells the tragic yet brave stories of these children, as well as the stories of their parents and carers.
The novel essentially revolves around Frank Gold, a Hungarian Jew and a war refugee, and London blends his mature voice with the innocence of a coming-of-age narrative, all set against the backdrop of World War II.
These will be important considerations for text study, particularly if you are to write a creative response on this text for your SAC. If you are writing analytically on this text, either for your SAC or for your exam, you may still complete the exercises—each one should still be insightful for your writing in some way. Also, feel free to check the video below; it breaks down an analytical prompt for this text.
This novel is set in Perth during the early s, which gives rise to a couple of interesting historical elements all intersecting in the book. Crucially, the events of the novel take place for the most part while World War II is raging in Europe.
This is important for understanding the backstory of the Gold family: they are Hungarian Jews who have escaped their war-torn home of Budapest to seek safety in Australia. In particular, we know that at some stage, Meyer had been taken away to a labour camp, and that Frank had had to hide himself in an attic. In many ways, the story of the Golds is underpinned by tragedy—not only are they war refugees, but young Frank then contracts poliomyelitis known to us just as polio , which forces the family to reassess all the plans they had for him to settle into an ordinary, Australian life.
However, Frank was far from the only victim of polio at the time—the entire nation was rocked by a wave of polio , with major outbreaks during the ss. This was quite a nerve-wracking, and causing great fear for our country and its active, outdoors-y culture.
The prospects of death, paralysis and permanent disability were understandably terrifying. About 70, people were affected, and almost half of them eventually died as a result. Almost every Australian at the time knew or knew of someone who had polio. I like to think that a lot of the themes in this book exist in diametric or opposing pairs.
For instance, London gives Frank a voice that is wise beyond his years, yet uses it to tell a tender story of first love. She also plays on the paradox that while some characters have become isolated due to the unfortunate events that have befallen them, these very events end up becoming the thing that unite them.
Central to the novel are ideas of innocence or childhood. These ideas are really explored in the friendship between Frank and Elsa, who are both on the cusp of adolescence. While they are set up as young lovers in the eyes of readers, we know that they are far too young to truly have romantic feelings for each other. In actual fact, their interactions are permeated by a sense of innocence.
However, these interactions are also punctuated by a sense of maturity , a desire for more. This is evident to the extent where nurses are getting hesitant about leaving them alone with each other even though their parents still trust them entirely. In actual fact, these parents serve as an important point of contrast. Some manage to recapture the magic of youth even as adults—consider Ida reigniting her love for the piano, or Meyer jumping on opportunities to start anew.
In this sense, innocence and maturity are a pair of themes that are interestingly not always found where one might expect. Another key thematic element of the novel is tragedy or adversity , which are relevant to a far wider gamut of characters. However, on the other end of this spectrum is the strength required to cope with their suffering. While Sullivan had his indefatigable sense of humour, other characters have developed different mechanisms to stay strong in the face of adversity.
Finally, London also tackles the idea of isolation , which can be seen as a consequence of tragedy—characters become isolated because they lose their ability to relate to others, and others feel unable to relate to them. Symbolically, the Golden Age hospital is surrounded by four roads and therefore cut off from the world, almost as if quarantined. Your text response SAC is in two weeks. You decide to write a practice essay for your English teacher.
Practice makes perfect, right? You stay up for hours, pouring your heart and soul into this essay. The result? Where did I go wrong? The examiners are looking for complex arguments , providing a variety of perspectives of the themes at hand. This means that you should be discussing the prompt, not blindly agreeing with it. Do create complex arguments, or paragraphs with a twist!
If you can justify your argument and it makes sense, include it in your essay. There are many ways that you could answer this question, but my plan looks like this:. Personally, I always struggled with starting an introduction. Having a strong start is essential to pave the way for a clear and concise essay. This is my start:. Topic sentence, evidence, explanation, link. The truth is that these elements are all very important in a body paragraph.
However, following a rigid structure will render your essay bland and repetitive. It is also extremely important to note that you should be using evidence from multiple points in the text , and you should be making sure that your paragraphs are directly answering the question.
For example:. That was an exaggerated example generated by searching for synonyms. To learn more about using the right vocabulary, read 'Why using big words in VCE essays can make you look dumber'. I firmly believe in short and sharp conclusions. A few sentences is enough. Once again, write what feels natural, and what flows well.
I'll finish off by giving you an exercise: brainstorm and write up a plan for the essay topic shown in the video below. I'd recommend you do this before watching Lisa's brainstorm and plan. That way, you can see which of your ideas overlapped, but also potentially see which ideas you may have missed out on. Good luck! The takeaway message for this video will be to utilise minor characters here and there to deepen your argument. She tells the stories of these various children, their families, and their caretakers, focusing on FrankGold and Elsa Briggs, the young protagonists who are just starting to develop romantic feelings for each other.
Though they, and many of the other children, have faced much hardship and misfortune, London tells a story of hope and human connection in times of misery. In particular, see if any scenes, passages or characters jump to mind. Isolation is a state of being alone or away from others and can be associated with a sense of powerlessness or insignificance.
Note that a good essay will discuss both these terms, and will address not only isolation but also the question of whether or not it is treated tragically. This word in the prompt suggests that The Golden Age is for the most part about these ideas - for you, that means you should ask yourself how central you think they are, and make a call on whether they are the most central.
In fact, the novel overall has a message of kinship and hope, and this would be the primary thematic focus, as well as the main treatment of otherwise tragic ideas. So how might this look in paragraphs? We see this through characters such as Ida and Meyer, who have been cut off from the world in their escape from their war-torn home, and forced to transition from their landlocked Hungary to an island on the other side of the globe.
Paragraph 2: We disagree, however, since the novel includes various other moods and thematic material - in particular, London explores notions of resolve and hope in times of hardship. Moving onto a minor character who was perhaps inspired by Elsa - the young Ann Lee, who was quite close to Elsa, also has a story which is more inspiring than tragic. When polio first crippled her, she found herself unable to give water to the brumbies in her desert town. A range of other characters demonstrate the power of love and human connection in the face of adversity, and London seems to be focusing on these ideas instead.
The Golden Age is a really great one for this because London has done so much with her cast. Do you agree? Despite the grim context, The Golden Age highlights and celebrates the potential of life. Memories of past successes and failures have significant lingering effects on characters in The Golden Age. Is this an accurate assessment? It is largely loneliness which defines the struggles of the children in The Golden Age.
Throughout The Golden Age , London draws attention to beauty rather than to suffering. In spite of their youth, it is the children of The Golden Age who understand best what it means to be an individual in the world.
How do characters from The Golden Age learn, grow and mature as the novel takes its course? Due to the range of different onset stories, each of the children and their families in The Golden Age face a different struggle with their identity. To what extent do you agree? How to embed quotes in your essay like a boss.
Summary 2. Themes 3. Symbols and Analysis 4. Quotes 5. Sample Essay Topics 6. Essay Topic Breakdown. Alice Munro is a Canadian Nobel-Prize-winning author of short stories , and Runaway , first published in , is a collection of eight such stories though kind of actually only six, because three of them are sequential.
These stories examine the lives of Canadian women throughout the last century, but not all of them are necessarily realistic to what daily life actually looks like. Rather, Munro uses borderline-supernatural events which some critics say feel staged or contrived to shed light on the tensions and challenge s of gender in modern life. This can mean that some of the stories are quite hard to follow; they go through all these twists and turns, and the lines between stories start blurring after a while.
The titular story is about a woman Carla , her husband Clark , their goat Flora , and their elderly neighbour Sylvia Jamieson. Few of these runaways are really very successful: this story is really interrogating why and how. In this story, she meets her lover Eric Porteous on a train, then finds him again six months later. Juliet feels a bit out of place now at home, and feels guilty about not being more present for Sara.
The next story is about Grace , an older woman revising the family home of her husband Maury Travers. This trip becomes longer and more sensual, feeling adulterous even though very little actually transpires between them - the story raises questions around what counts as cheating, and what marriages should entail.
We go on a flashback in the middle to learn about a father, Harry , and his daughter Lauren. This leads to Lauren questioning if she was adopted, which is further complicated by Delphine , a worker at a hotel who seems to think Lauren is her biological daughter.
The ending which was teased at the beginning is the evening of confrontation between the four characters where the truth is finally revealed. It follows Nancy as she ages from a fresh high school graduate to an old woman by the end of the sequence, including her marriage to the town doctor Wilf. Importantly, the stories also cover her friendship with Tessa , who has the supernatural powers mentioned in the title.
However, by the third story, Tessa has been abandoned in a mental hospital and she has lost her powers. A key theme explored throughout many of the stories is marriage and domesticity. A similar fate befalls Juliet, who gives up her study in the process of becoming married. This sounds a bit trite, but the title is a key theme as well - just not necessarily in the physical sense.
Consider all of these different definitions and how they pop up in the stories. Some runaways are described as accidents - 'she — Flora — slipped through' - while others are much more deliberate. The question here is how much control we actually have over our own lives. Not a lot, it would seem. She brings up complex moral situations but does not pass judgment on any. Throughout the stories, Munro brings in a few elements of Greek mythology or literature. All of these elements have some significance:.
In general, intertextuality is a way to enrich a text by drawing parallels and linking characters to existing stories or archetypes. Here, Munro uses classical texts to add dimension to her characters in a way that is almost-but-not-quite commentary. The other symbol that comes up a few times in the stories is roads or railroads - basically places where runaways might happen.
These ABC components are:. This is where we start getting into whether these boundaries are created or overstepped. Clark creates boundaries for Carla and her attempts to break free from them are unsuccessful. How can we synthesise these ideas into one essay? Try to think of creative ways to string these ideas together that also build towards a bigger picture or overall contention about the text as a whole.
This variation underscores their complexity. The General Achievement Test GAT is a 3 hour assessment based on your general knowledge ranging from English, mathematics and humanity topics. Have you ever talked to your friend from another school and realised how unfair it was that their SAC length for the same assessment was twice the amount of time you had for your SAC?
Well, this type of this discrepancy can be compensated by the GAT as it helps to eliminate any biases from school to school. This means that ultimately, when SAC marks contribute to your overall study score, you can be sure that your grades have been fairly compared to all other VCE students across the state. All end-of-year papers are checked twice by two different assessors who independently give you a score for your exam.
Now if they both give you a similar score then great, your exam has been marked. If not, a third assessor will then look at your exam in order to reach an agreement. Then, there is a last check against your GAT mark. If it so happens that your exam mark is much lower than what your GAT mark anticipated you to obtain — in other words, if you received a high GAT mark which demonstrates your strong skills in English, mathematics, science or humanities depending on the subject in question, then the paper will be reassessed again.
So, if you do well in the GAT and receive an excellent score and for some reason you under-perform in the exam, then the GAT mark can help lift up your score. Thus, the GAT mark will only ever help you, it can never bring your mark down. Some students apply for a DES when they experience hardship during their VCE exam period such as personal trauma or an accident. In such situations, the GAT is compared with their exam mark to see whether or not the student demonstrated their full potential or if they under-performed because of their current situation.
Many students believe that they are immune to anything happening to them before or during the exams, but you never know. Now knowing all this, it is often said that there is no preparation required for the GAT. Of course, if you are the type who would like to fit in some practice before the real thing, then have a look at the GAT archive available on the VCAA website.
This post will break down both the writing components and offer you handy tips on how you should approach these tasks in order to maximise your GAT score and potentially increase your overall ATAR. VCAA suggests 30 minutes for both Writing Tasks 1 and 2 leaving the remainder of your time for 70 multiple choice questions. If you are happy with this approach then by all means go for it.
However, considering that English is definitely in your top 4 subjects that contribute significantly to your ATAR, it is worth investing more of your time on the Writing Tasks. Generally, most students spend around 1 minute per multiple choice question which should therefore, only take around 70 minutes to complete the MCQ section. If we bear in mind that some MCQs will be more complex than others, say we dedicate an extra 20 minutes for MCQ, meaning that you should complete the whole MCQ section in around the 90 minutes mark.
Strategically, this is a good approach for any student studying an English subject — which is well, everyone. Over the past few years, content that has popped up in the GAT includes Mt. Everest, wolves, the ocean and more. Below is an image of what you should expect:. Develop a piece of writing presenting the main information in the material.
You should not present an argument. Your piece will be judged on:. To write a creative piece utilising the information available in Writing Task 1. The worst thing to do, which unfortunately a lot of students fall into the trap of doing, is to simply write a long-winded essay literally regurgitating the information from the GAT sheet. This will be an excellent way of executing your writing piece.
Writing Task 2 consists of four statements on a contentious issue. Some of the issues raised in the past have included: are the elderly wiser than the young? Below is an example from the GAT:. Based on one or more of the statements, develop a piece of writing presenting your point of view. Your piece of writing will be judged on:.
To write a persuasive piece debating the topic using one or more of the statements to support your opinion. This means that you can either choose to focus on one of the statements and base your entire contention on that one statement, or alternatively, choose two or more statements as a basis for different arguments if you wanted to write from a more balanced point of view.
Options on how to present the piece include: opinion article, speech, blog post, etc. Remember to include language techniques such as rhetorical questions and inclusive language, as this is expected in a persuasive piece. Remember that the GAT can only help you improve your VCE mark, it can never bring you down — so make the effort and try your best! Let me be honest with you: year 12 is going to be tough. I know kids who went out way too hard and way too fast and by the middle of the year were completely burnt out.
You want to be feeling fresh and ready by the time September comes around. For me, these 6 factors were essential for staying happy and healthy, and they undoubtedly helped me to fulfil my potential during the VCE. Routine — Have a solid, planned-out routine set up early in the year. Work out how much time you have outside of school and extra-curricular commitments. Schedule time each day for homework, study, revision. Schedule exercise, time with friends, and relaxation time for yourself.
And after all that make sure you have still have time for a solid 8 hours of sleep! I would suggest that sleep and relaxation time are two of the most important things on your timetable, so try not to cut them out! A regular routine will help keep you on track and make it easier to hit deadlines with minimal stress.
It will also assist you in cutting out procrastination! Just commit to it and really take the whole night off. Exercise — I cannot stress enough how important regular exercise can be for a VCE student. Given all the time spent on homework and study, I know it can sometimes seem difficult to squeeze anything else in. Exercise allows you to just shut your brain off and take some time out for yourself.
It allows you to spend all that pent up energy that comes from sitting in the classroom all day. A tired body will mean a much better sleep too! Drag yourself out of bed a little earlier in the morning, or schedule some time as soon as you get home from school. Sleep — Sleep is one of the key factors in having a good final school year. I know it can be tempting to pull all-nighters, cramming as much information into your head before SACs, exams and the like. This kind of thing can actually be counter-productive though.
I needed at least 8 hours a night to function properly; whatever your number is, make it a priority to get a solid sleep. Then write. If it's good, you'll find out. If it's not, throw it out of the window. You read and you're pierced. First rule: Do not use semicolons. They are transvestite hermaphrodites representing absolutely nothing. All they do is show you've been to college.
Rather, follow your most intense obsessions mercilessly. Writing comes from reading, and reading is the finest teacher of how to write. First you do it for love, then you do it for your friends, and then you do it for money. I'd type a little faster. You get a couple and learn how to handle them, and pretty soon you have a dozen.
It is an assemblage of flat, flexible parts still called "leaves" imprinted with dark pigmented squiggles. One glance at it and you hear the voice of another person, perhaps someone dead for thousands of years. Across the millennia, the author is speaking, clearly and silently, inside your head, directly to you.
Writing is perhaps the greatest of human inventions, binding together people, citizens of distant epochs, who never knew one another. Books break the shackles of time--proof that humans can work magic. They always become a little different immediately after they are expressed, a little distorted, a little foolish. Or, if proper usage gets in the way, it may have to go. I can't allow what we learned in English composition to disrupt the sound and rhythm of the narrative.