Place your cursor on a page that will eventually contain resource material that starts with the letter A and create a bookmark by clicking on Insert and then on Bookmark. Place a check in the box next to Hidden bookmarks and type A in the space under Bookmark name and click on Add. Move down the page and do the same—only this time use B as your Bookmark name.
Later you can add the rest of the alphabet using the same technique—and eventually, if you wish, you can move the bookmarks to other pages in the document. That will place the hyperlink for A in the document, and the page now will look like this:. The Insert Hyperlink screen should now look like this:. After you click on OK , add your resource material—the A material under the A bookmark and the B material under the B bookmark. To add an artistic touch, you can format the letters.
Development, Los Gatos, California. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Search Menu. Skip Nav Destination Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents Abstract. Background on difficulties and problems in dictionary use for production.
Results and discussion. Article Navigation. Chon Y. Korea Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation vylee52 kice. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Cite Y. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract The dictionary plays an important role in helping writers solve lexical problems in the L2 writing process. Issue Section:. You do not currently have access to this article. Download all slides. Sign in Don't already have an Oxford Academic account?
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As smartphone and tablet owners increase, there will be an ever-increasing demand for e-glossaries that work on any platform e. Even if full comprehension may not be achieved by the use of an e-glossary in the case of beginner L2 learners, it will be helpful for vocabulary learning. Chun reported that learners who used an e-word dictionary could not find many words in the dictionary due to their looking words up improperly, e.
An e-glossary is designed to solve this problem; it should identify any form and gloss it. Not only content words e. In the meta-analysis of components related to L2 reading comprehension, Jeon and Yamashita found that grammar and vocabulary are the two major contributors to comprehension.
Grabe lists vocabulary and syntactic knowledge as the top two crucial components of L2 reading comprehension. Glossing function words is critical for syntactic comprehension, particularly in Japanese, in which tense, aspect, voice and modality are all shown in the form of bound non-stand-alone morphemes. In order to evaluate existing e-glossaries and identify areas for improvement, the three e-glossaries that have been named in the above e-dictionary survey are evaluated against the following criteria.
Three unmodified Japanese text segments in different styles of writing plain, polite, and colloquial styles , were chosen as test passages. These three passages were pasted into the three e-glossaries, and the results of processed passages were examined. Rikai allows users to enter a web address or paste a text in the box provided. Glosses definitions in English and pronunciations in Japanese are shown in pop-up windows when the user moves the mouse over the text to see the definitions and pronunciations.
Users can enter a web address or paste a text into the provided box. The results glosses are shown below each sentence of the text. The default language is English, but users can change the system to display in other languages. Reading Tutor can be used as an e-word dictionary or an e-glossary different pages. Rikai-sama has more features than the earlier versions.
Reading Tutor does not have other versions see Table 3. None of the above work offline. Coverage was evaluated using numbers and percentages of highlighted characters indicating information is available. As the definition of a word is not well-defined in Japanese Kato, , characters rather than words were counted in order to determine the proportion of coverage.
Firstly, for each passage, total characters per passage were counted, after deleting all punctuation. Secondly, the highlighted characters in each system were counted, and percentages were then calculated. The overall low coverage across the e-glossaries see Table 4 appears to be due to insufficiently covering function words and post-verb bound morphemes showing tense, aspect, voice and modality. Not all highlighted characters contribute to the provision of information.
MWU refers to a combination of words that conveys a meaning on its own, including noun compounds, compound verbs, collocations, idioms, proverbs, fixed phrases and other lexical bundles. However, a few wrong segmentations of another sort are identified. The coverage of accurate information, after removing mis-segmented parts, is shown in Table 5.
The e-glossaries were then examined to determine whether information of content words and function words was provided. Rikai displays almost no function words. Reading Tutor has abundant information for content words, but little information for function words see Table 6. Their display formats are very different from each other, which may also affect user-friendliness. For ubiquity, all of them are for online use.
However, since Rikai only shows essential information no details , the small screen of a smartphone does not hinder users. This incompatibility might be a reason why only a handful of students use e-glossaries. A reason for the overall low coverage in the e-glossaries seems to be that verb conjugations and post-verb bound morphemes are not adequately covered. As Japanese is an agglutinative language, meaning-determining information, such as tense, aspect, voice and mood, are all expressed in seemingly one single MWU, which carries critical information for comprehension.
The results have revealed that segmentation errors can be caused by two distinct reasons: over-segmentation of MWU and identification of longest matches. Most available Japanese morphological analysers use a small meaningful unit i. A downside of using this algorithm is occasional inappropriate segmentations. The results of the evaluation showed that e-glossaries gloss a number of content words, but glossing of function words is insufficient.
In order to understand an unmodified text, information concerning function words is crucial. Their data revealed that the L2 readers preferred to use Google and wordreference. If an e-glossary provides such information, learners do not need to consult multiple dictionaries.
The main aim for the current study is to investigate the usage and efficacy of e-dictionaries for Japanese, a language without boundaries between words. This article reported the results of two studies concerning e-dictionaries: a survey study investigating the use of e-dictionaries particularly e-glossaries by L2 Japanese learners, and a comparative study evaluating existing e-glossaries for Japanese.
The results on the use of e-dictionaries have clearly shown that using e-word dictionaries on various devices is becoming a trend. For reading an e-text, it is expected that the use of an e-glossary, which segments a text and glosses linguistic items, would be preferred over the use of an e-word dictionary.
However, the results of the survey suggest that few L2 learners use an e-glossary, or even know of the existence of such. Whether the e-dictionaries that L2 learners use are the results of informed choices is questionable. Previous studies e. Pasfield-Neofitou, and personal comments from some of the participants of the current survey suggest otherwise.
The second study was conducted to evaluate e-glossaries, their features and characteristics, to determine the reasons for their low usage. The results also suggest that e-glossaries have various functions, but lack some requisite functions, such as accurate segmentation and showing function words and MWU. Due to increased internet connectivity and platforms, the survey study showed a dramatic increase of users of online dictionaries and smartphone apps, compared to three years ago.
However, most available e-dictionaries are e-word dictionaries, in which the user can look up individual words. In other words, L2 learners need to be able to identify words i. However, at present, the ubiquity of e-word dictionaries is preferred over the informativeness of e-glossaries. The evaluation of e-glossaries revealed that there is still room for improvement; it was discussed that an e-glossary would benefit by the provision of information for those linguistic components crucial to the target language.
It has been reported that educators consider dictionary use to be something learners do on their own on their own responsibility e. For this reason, studies concerning usage and efficacy of e-dictionaries, such as this one, are valuable. For learners and educators to make judgements about e-dictionaries, their evaluation is as necessary and as beneficial as the effects of their use by learners.
The author would like to express her gratitude to Prof. Sincere thanks also go to the lecturers who gave their time to the survey and to the students who kindly volunteered to complete it. AbuSeileek, A. The effect of lexical coverage and dictionary use on L2 reading comprehension, Reading Matrix, 11 3 : Chen I. Hypertext annotation: Effects of presentation formats and learner proficiency on reading comprehension and vocabulary learning in foreign languages.
Computers and Education, 63 : Chun, D. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 14 5 : Gettys, S. Computer-assisted reading: The effect of glossing format on reading comprehension and vocabulary retention, Foreign Language Annals, 34 2 : Grabe, W. New York: Cambridge University Press. Jeon, E.
L2 reading comprehension and its correlates: A Meta-Analysis. Language Learning 64 1 : — Jin L. Kato, S. Koda, K. Background on difficulties and problems in dictionary use for production. Results and discussion.
Article Navigation. Chon Y. Korea Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation vylee52 kice. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Cite Y. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract The dictionary plays an important role in helping writers solve lexical problems in the L2 writing process. Issue Section:. You do not currently have access to this article. Download all slides. Sign in Don't already have an Oxford Academic account?
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