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You may think that your students are only interested in fiction readingbut the truth is that children are fascinated by the world around them. Studies have long touted the benefits of teaching students how to read nonfiction. Nonfiction text helps students develop background knowledgewhich in turn assists them as they encounter more difficult reading throughout their school years. Nonfiction can also help students learn to read text features not often found in works of fiction, including headings, graphs, and charts. Students used to rely on nonfiction non fiction book report activities for research projects from science to art. With the rise of digital sources, many students choose to simply do their research online.

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Essay durga puja wikipedia

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In Switzerland, [] puja in Baden, Aargan has been celebrated since In Sweden, the puja is celebrated in cities such as Stockholm and Helsingborg. In Japan Durga Puja is celebrated in Tokyo with much fanfare. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hindu festival. Durga killing Mahishasura with her lion replaced here with a horse. Lakshmi and Ganesha flank the left while Saraswati and Kartikeya flank the right.

Scriptures and texts. Festivals and temples. Main traditions. Vaishnavism Shaivism Shaktism Smartism. Supreme reality. Meaning of life. Stages of life. Three paths to liberation. Worship, sacrifice, and charity. Rites of passage. Philosophical schools. Six Astika schools. Gurus, saints, philosophers. Sources and classification of scripture. Other scriptures. Other texts. Shastras , sutras , and samhitas.

Stotras and stutis. Other society-related topics:. Other topics. Hinduism by country. Hinduism and other religions. Further information: Durga and Akaal bodhan. From top left to bottom right a Structure of a Durga sculpture-idol being made at Kumortuli ; b Lady carrying offerings for the puja ; c Sandhi puja on the day of Ashtami ; d Immersion of the sculpture-idol on Vijaya Dashami. Durga Puja as a harvest festival Om you are rice [wheat Left: Dhak s, played during the pujo; right: Dhunuchi naach on Navami ; bottom: Women taking part in sindoor khela on Vijaya Dashami.

Durga Puja dhak beats. From top left to bottom right a A craftsperson sculpting the face of the sculpture-idol; b Durga puja pandal decorations in Kolkata; c Interior decorations of a pandal ; d Street lights installed during the festivities. Further information: Shaktism and Animal sacrifice in Hinduism. Two theme-based pandals in Kolkata.

Left: Durga puja festivities by dancers and musicians in Calcutta, circa ss; Right: Patna style painting of Durga puja, circa Left: Durga puja in Germany, in ; right: Durga puja in the Netherlands, in We make a meditation of the goddess Durga. May that Goddess guide us on the right path. Durga Gayatri Mantra, recited at many stages of Durga puja ; [57] [b] Hrim! O blessed goddess Durga, come here, stay here, stay here, take up residence here, accept my worship.

Durga Avahana Mantra ; [58] etc. Archived from the original on 15 September Retrieved 17 July EF News International. Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 25 October Encyclopedia Britannica.

Assam Online Portal. Archived from the original on 17 August Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 25 June Babb; John E. Cort; Michael W. Meister ISBN Archived from the original on 18 February Retrieved 17 February Indische Forschungen. The Journal of Asian Studies. JSTOR Indian Express. Retrieved 20 September The Economic Times. Retrieved 18 September The Hindu. Retrieved 1 October Times Travel.

Times of India. Business Standard. India Today. The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 3 November The Times of India. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 5 November Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 13 May Retrieved 4 October The Daily Pioneer. Archived from the original on 7 October New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 20 October The Northeast Today.

Retrieved 27 September Jagran Post. Archived from the original on 18 November Orissa Post. PPN and Agencies. The Statesman. Zee News India. Financial Express. Business Today. Archived from the original on 3 September Many Bangladeshi Muslim women wear saris and bindis, or teeps, the dot on their forehead, usually seen only among Hindu women; they celebrate pujo, a Hindu festival for the goddess Durga, and they have no hesitation ushering in Poyla Baisakh, to celebrate the Bengali new year.

Indo American News. HK Yanto Yan. BBC News. Retrieved 29 October Bengali Cultural Society - South Sweden. The Bengal Diaspora. Rethinking Muslim Migration. Amazzone, Laura Goddess Durga and Sacred Female Power. University Press of America. Retrieved 5 February Patricia Monaghan ed. Goddesses in World Culture. Bandyopadhyay, Pranab Mother Goddess Kali. UW Press. Banerji, Chitrita Penguin Books India. Bradley, Cynthia Encyclopedia of Hinduism.

Brooks, Douglas Renfrew Auspicious Wisdom. State University of New York Press. Brown, C Mackenzie Brown, Cheever Mackenzie Chapple, Christopher Hinduism and ecology: the intersection of earth, sky, and water. Harvard University Press. Chitgopekar, Nilima 20 July Book Of Durga. Coburn, Thomas B. South Asia Books.

Charles Russell Coulter; Patricia Turner Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities. Reid-Bowen, Paul Doniger, Wendy Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Donner, Henrike The Encyclopedia of World Religions. Infobase Publishing. Foulston, Lynn; Abbott, Stuart Hindu Goddesses: Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. Fuller, Christopher John Princeton University Press. Ghosa, Pratapacandra Durga Puja: with notes and illustrations. Calcutta: Hindoo Patriot Press.

Godfrey, Phoebe; Torres, Denise Harlan, Lindsey Oxford University Press. University of California Press. Hiltebeitel, Alf; Erndl, Kathleen M. Is the Goddess a Feminist? New York University Press. Katznelson, Ira; Jones, Gareth Stedman Religion and the Political Imagination. Cambridge University Press. Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D Jones, David; Marion, Michele SUNY Press. Kinsley, David Lochtefeld, James G The Rosen Publishing Group. McDaniel, June Khanna, Vikas Bloomsbury Academic.

London, Ellen Gareth Stevens. McDermott, Rachel Fell Columbia University Press. McLean, Malcolm Melton, J. Gordon Monaghan, Patricia Encyclopedia of Goddesses and Heroines. Sree Padma Lexington Books. Ancient India's Myths and Beliefs.

Rao, Saligrama Krishna Ramachandra IBH Prakashana. Hence Durga Puja is the reverence of mother Durga, asking her to bless her devotees with strength and velour. Shaktism is an ancient Hindu tradition to worship the feminine form of Goddess Shakti. During ancient times the tradition was carried out by only the armies and soldiers who had to go on a battle. Modern practices of Durga Puja involve worship and reverence of the Goddess in the large pandals erected specifically for this purpose.

People visit these pandals and worship a large bust of goddess kept in the center. Other rituals include fasting for all the nine days of the festival. Celebrations in the house are also simple and involve no exuberance. People recite Durga Saptashati in house, which is a collection of phrases, praising the goddess. Those who fast usually stay on the diet of fruit, vegetables, and milk products for complete nine days. On the last day, a hawan or offering to the goddess in front of a fire is performed on the last day.

The festival of Durga Puja is integral to the Hindu religion and is very important in keeping the ages hold Hindu beliefs alive in the heart of religious believers. Durga Puja is a Hindu festival celebrated in reverence to the Hindu warrior goddess, named Durga.

Celebrated in the Hindu calendar month of Ashwin, it is a nine days festival, entailing the worship of nine different forms of the Goddess each day. Pandals are an integral part of Durga Puja celebrations. These are large temporary structures made of cloth, supported by bamboo or steel frame.

Pandals of different shapes and sizes are erected every few kilometers and in every locality. These Pandals are beautifully decorated by lights and are also often made with different themes like a temple, palace, etc. A life bust of the goddess is kept at the center of the pandal, for the devotees to pay visit and worship.

These Pandals remain the centre of attraction during the Durga Puja festival for complete nine days; though, common people are allowed inside the pandal only from the sixth day. The celebration ends only on the tenth day when the statue of the goddess is taken out in a procession to a nearby pond or river for immersion. The festival of Durga Puja specifically commemorates the victory of Goddess Durga over the bull demon Mahishasura.

The demon king Mahishasura, at a point of time, became so powerful that he set out to conquer all the three worlds. They all gave Durga their trusted weapons, with the help of which the goddess was able to kill Mahishasura on the tenth day. Another legend of Durga Puja is associated with Lord Rama. It is believed that before killing Ravana in a fierce battle, Lord Rama had worshipped the goddess Durga to provide strength and velour.

This is the reason why the festival of Durga Puja coincides with the Dussehra festival, which commemorates the day Rama killed Ravana. The festival of Durga Puja has a grand religious as well as cultural significance. Many religious groups and local communities and people come together to celebrate the festival with zeal and fervor.

The festival signifies the victory of good over bad and evil. It also signifies the strength that a woman can endure if she has to fight against evil and injustice. Durga Puja is a religious occasion that celebrates a warrior goddess that provides strength to the warriors and to everyone who is fighting for truth and pride.

Durga Puja is a major Hindu festival celebrated in India and also in adjoining countries of Nepal and Bangladesh. Durga Puja celebration in West Bengal is renowned the world over and attract a large influx of tourists every year. Durga Puja is celebrated in the seventh month — Ashwin, of Hindu lunisolar calendar. Ashwin month corresponds to the Gregorian calendar months of September-October.

The festival of Durga Puja entails nine days celebration with the festival of Dussehra falling on the tenth day. No concrete evidence for the beginning of the Durga Puja festival is found in the historical records; however, there are records to suggest that wealthy families and also those belonging to the royal lineage were organizing Durga Puja in community. Manuscripts from the 14th-century support this claim. The popularity of Durga Puja suddenly increased during the rule of British rule, sometime during the late 19th or early 20th centuries, mainly in the states of Odisha and West Bengal.

However, this festival was only celebrated by kings and their armies. Another religious text which provides clear references to the worship of Goddess Durga is Devi Mahatmya. Durga Saptasati is the most widely recited religious text during the Durga Puja. The festival of Durga Puja entails the worship of nine forms of Goddess Durga.

The names of these forms, the days on which they are worshipped along with a brief description of each of them is provided below-. Worshipped on the first day Shailputri is the daughter of the mountains. Depicted with a rudraksha mala in one hand and a kamandala in other, this form of Goddess is worshipped on the second day.

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In some parts of the country idols of the goddess are immersed in water, whereas in other parts of the country young girls dress as the goddess and partake in various rituals at temples and public celebrations. We and our partners use cookies to better understand your needs, improve performance and provide you with personalised content and advertisements.

To allow us to provide a better and more tailored experience please click "OK". Sridevi Nambiar. Add to Plan. Give us feedback. Read Next. Inside the Nine-Day Festival. Cookies Policy We and our partners use cookies to better understand your needs, improve performance and provide you with personalised content and advertisements. The festival is also observed by some Shakta Hindus as a private home-based festival. This is typically also the day on which the eyes of the deities on the representative clay sculpture-idols are painted, bringing them to a lifelike appearance.

These also include Vedic chants and recitations of the Devi Mahatmya text in Sanskrit. The rituals before the puja begins include the following: [60]. The process of the creation of clay sculpture-idols pratima or murti for the puja, from the collection of clay to the ornamentation is a ceremonial process. Though the festival is observed post-monsoon harvest, the artisans begin making the sculpture-idols months before, during summer.

The process begins with prayers to Ganesha and to the perceived divinity in materials such as bamboo frames in which the sculpture-idols are cast. Clay, or alluvial soil, collected from different region form the base. This choice is a tradition wherein Durga, perceived as the creative energy and material, is believed to be present everywhere and everything in the universe.

The clay base is combined with straw, kneaded, and then molded into a cast made from hay and bamboo. This is layered to a fine final shape, cleaned, painted, and polished. A layer of a fiber called jute , mixed in with clay, is also attached to the top to prevent the statue from cracking in the months ahead.

The heads of the statues are more complex, and are usually made separately. The procedure for and proportions of the sculpture-idols are described in arts-related Sanskrit texts of Hinduism, such as the Vishvakarma Sashtra. The sculpture-idols for the puja are traditionally made of biodegradable materials such as straw, clay, soil, and wood.

Environmental activists have raised concerns about the paint used to produce the statue, stating that the heavy metals in these paints pollute rivers when the statues are immersed at the end of the Durga festival. Brighter colors that are also biodegradable and eco-friendly, as well as the traditional natural colors, are typically more expensive compared to the non biodegradable paints. Shakta Hindu communities mark the slaying of Mahishasura and the victory of Durga with a symbolic or actual sacrifice.

Most communities prefer symbolic sacrifice, where a statue of the asura is made of flour or equivalent, is immolated and smeared with vermilion, symbolic of the blood that had spilled during the battle. In communities performing actual sacrifice, an animal is sacrificed, mainly at temples. This practice is rare among Hindus outside the regions of Bengal, Odisha and Assam. The Rajputs of Rajasthan worship their weapons and horses in the related festival of Navaratri, and some historically observed the sacrifice of a goat, a practice that continues in some places.

In the past this ritual was considered a rite of passage into manhood and readiness as a warrior. Months before the start of Durga Puja, youth members of the community collect funds and donations, engage priests and artisans, buy votive materials and help build pandal s centred around a theme, which has rose to prominence in recent years.

Such themes have included sex work, [88] celebration of humanity, [89] marginalisation of queer persons and transgender persons , [90] folk culture, [91] celebration of cinema, [92] womanhood, [91] pro-environment themes, [93] while others have chosen metaphorical themes such as celebration of maati literally, soil or ash and "finding one's own light".

Durga puja pandals have also been centred around themes to acknowledge political events such as the Balakot airstrike and to protest against the National Register of Citizens of India. Designs and sculpture-idols are made by commissioned artisans, which is also a team effort involving labourers, architects, and community representatives hosting it. The budget required for such theme-based pujas is significantly higher than traditional pujas.

For such theme-based pujas, the preparations and the building of pandals are a significant arts-related economic activity, often attracting major sponsors. The growth of competitiveness in theme-based pandals has escalated costs and scale of Durga puja in eastern states of India.

Some segments of the society criticise the billboards, the economic competition, and seek return to basics. In , an foot statue of Durga in Kolkata's Deshapriya Park attracted numerous devotees, with some estimates placing visitors at one million. There exists variation in worship practices and rituals associated with Durga puja, as is the case with other Hindu festivals, in the Indian subcontinent.

Different localised rituals may be observed regionally, with these variations accepted across temples, pandals , and within families. There may exist differences of practice between the puja of theme-based Pandals , family pujas with puja of erstwhile aristocrat families known as bonedi puja , and community pujas known as barowari pujas of neighbourhoods or apartments.

The rituals of the puja also varies from being Vedic, Puranic, or Tantric, or a combination of these. The non-Bengali Durga puja rituals tend to be essentially Vedic srauta in nature but they too incorporate esoteric elements making the puja an example of a culmination of Vedic-Tantric practices. Historical evidence suggests that the Durga puja has evolved over time, becoming more elaborate, social, and creative. The festival had earlier been a domestic puja, a form of practice that still remains popular.

But it had also come to be celebrated in the sarvajanin public form, where communities get together, pool their resources and efforts to set up pandals and illuminations, and celebrate the event as a "mega-show to share". While other set of sources suggest that a Bengali landlord, named Kamsanarayan, held a mega-show puja in late 16th-century Bengal.

Streets are decked up with festive lights, loudspeakers play festive songs as well as recitation of hymns and chants by priests, and pandal s are erected by communities. The roads become overcrowded with revellers, devotees, and pandal -hoppers visiting the pandals on puja days. It often creates chaotic traffic conditions. Shops, eateries, and restaurants stay open all night; fairs are also set up and cultural programmes are held.

Today, Durga Puja has turned into a consumerist social carnival, a major public spectacle and a major arts event riding on the wave of commercialisation, corporate sponsorship, and craze for award-winning. For private domestic pujas, families dedicate an area of their homes, known as thakur dalan , for Durga puja where the sculpture-idols for worship is placed and decorated with home-dyed fabric, sola ornamentations, and gold and silver foil decorations.

Elaborate rituals like arati are performed and prasad is distributed after being offered to the deities. As a tradition, married daughters visit their parents and celebrate the Durga puja with them, a symbolism alluding to Durga who is popularly believed to return to her natal home during the puja. Durga Puja is also a gift-giving and shopping season for communities celebrating it, with people buying gifts for not only family members but also for close relatives and friends.

New clothes are the traditional gift, and people wear them to go out together during Durga puja. During puja holidays, people may also go to places of tourist attractions while others return home to spend Durga puja with their family. The organising committees of each puja pandal hires a purohita priest who performs the puja rituals on behalf of the community. The puja involves crowds of people visiting the pandals , with smaller groups visiting family pujas, to witness the celebrations.

The immersion ceremony continues till a couple of days after the last day of puja. According to some scholars, the ritual of immersing the Durga sculpture-idol into the river attracted the attention of colonial era travelers to the Bengal region from Europe, such as Garcin de Tassy and Emma Roberts. In , Tassy reported that similar rituals were annually observed by the Muslim community in Bengal. Shia Muslims observed Muharram over ten days, taking out processions in memory of the martyrdom of Imam Husayn ibn Ali , and then cast a memorial Imam's cenotaph into a river on the tenth day.

Tassy further stated that the Muslim rituals included the same offerings at the annual observation of Muharram that the Hindu rituals included during Durga puja. In Odisha, Durga puja is the most important festival of the people of the state. Durga puja is a very important festival for Odias, during the 4 days of the festival, the streets of the city turns into a wonderland throughout the state, people welcome the arrival of their maa by rejoicing themselves, eating tasty food, wearing new clothes,seeing different pandals across the city, family gathering and gift givings.

In , ninety-seven pandals in Cuttack alone, Odisha were reported to bedeck respective sculpture-idols with silver jewellery for Durga puja celebrations; such club of pandals termed regionally as Chandi Medha. The state capital is famous for the modern themes and creativity In the pandals, while the Western part of the state has a more retro decoration theme to the pandal. While in Tripura there were over 2, community Durga puja celebrations in Beyond being an art festival and a socio-religious event, Durga puja has also been a political event with regional and national political parties having sponsored Durga puja celebrations.

The committees organising Durga puja in Kolkata have close links to politicians. The day of Mahalaya is marked by the Bengali community with Mahishasuramardini — a two-hours long All India Radio programme — that has been popular in the Bengali community since the s. While in earlier days it used to be recorded live, a pre-recorded version has come to be broadcast in recent decades.

Bengalis traditionally wake up at four in the morning on Mahalaya to listen to the radio show, primarily involving recitations of chants and hymns from Devi Mahatmyam or Chandi Path by Birendra Krishna Bhadra and Pankaj Kumar Mullick. The show also features various devotional melodies. Dramas enacting the legend of Durga slaying Mahishasura are telecasted on the television.

Radio and television channels also air other festive shows, [ citation needed ] while Bengali and Odia magazines publish special editions for the puja known as Pujabarshiki Annual Puja Edition or Sharadiya Sankhya Autumnal Volume. These contain works of writers, both established and upcoming, and are more voluminous than the regular issues. Durga puja is celebrated commonly by Bangladesh's Hindu community. Some Bengali Muslims also take part in the festivities.

Celebrations are also organised in Europe. The sculpture-idols are shipped from India and stored in warehouses to be re-used over the years. At the end of the puja, the sculpture-idols were immersed in River Thames for the first time in , after "the community was allowed to give a traditional send-off to the deities by London's port authorities". In Switzerland, [] puja in Baden, Aargan has been celebrated since In Sweden, the puja is celebrated in cities such as Stockholm and Helsingborg.

In Japan Durga Puja is celebrated in Tokyo with much fanfare. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hindu festival. Durga killing Mahishasura with her lion replaced here with a horse. Lakshmi and Ganesha flank the left while Saraswati and Kartikeya flank the right.

Scriptures and texts. Festivals and temples. Main traditions. Vaishnavism Shaivism Shaktism Smartism. Supreme reality. Meaning of life. Stages of life. Three paths to liberation. Worship, sacrifice, and charity. Rites of passage. Philosophical schools. Six Astika schools. Gurus, saints, philosophers. Sources and classification of scripture. Other scriptures.

Other texts. Shastras , sutras , and samhitas. Stotras and stutis. Other society-related topics:. Other topics. Hinduism by country. Hinduism and other religions. Further information: Durga and Akaal bodhan. From top left to bottom right a Structure of a Durga sculpture-idol being made at Kumortuli ; b Lady carrying offerings for the puja ; c Sandhi puja on the day of Ashtami ; d Immersion of the sculpture-idol on Vijaya Dashami.

Durga Puja as a harvest festival Om you are rice [wheat Left: Dhak s, played during the pujo; right: Dhunuchi naach on Navami ; bottom: Women taking part in sindoor khela on Vijaya Dashami. Durga Puja dhak beats. From top left to bottom right a A craftsperson sculpting the face of the sculpture-idol; b Durga puja pandal decorations in Kolkata; c Interior decorations of a pandal ; d Street lights installed during the festivities.

Further information: Shaktism and Animal sacrifice in Hinduism. Two theme-based pandals in Kolkata. Left: Durga puja festivities by dancers and musicians in Calcutta, circa ss; Right: Patna style painting of Durga puja, circa Left: Durga puja in Germany, in ; right: Durga puja in the Netherlands, in We make a meditation of the goddess Durga. May that Goddess guide us on the right path.

Durga Gayatri Mantra, recited at many stages of Durga puja ; [57] [b] Hrim! O blessed goddess Durga, come here, stay here, stay here, take up residence here, accept my worship. Durga Avahana Mantra ; [58] etc. Archived from the original on 15 September Retrieved 17 July EF News International. Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 25 October Encyclopedia Britannica.

Assam Online Portal. Archived from the original on 17 August Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 25 June Babb; John E. Cort; Michael W. Meister ISBN Archived from the original on 18 February Retrieved 17 February Indische Forschungen. The Journal of Asian Studies. JSTOR Indian Express. Retrieved 20 September The Economic Times. Retrieved 18 September The Hindu. Retrieved 1 October Times Travel. Times of India. Business Standard. India Today. The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 3 November The Times of India.

Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 5 November Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 13 May Retrieved 4 October The Daily Pioneer. Archived from the original on 7 October New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 20 October The Northeast Today.

Retrieved 27 September Jagran Post. Archived from the original on 18 November Orissa Post. PPN and Agencies. The Statesman. Zee News India. Financial Express. Business Today. Archived from the original on 3 September Many Bangladeshi Muslim women wear saris and bindis, or teeps, the dot on their forehead, usually seen only among Hindu women; they celebrate pujo, a Hindu festival for the goddess Durga, and they have no hesitation ushering in Poyla Baisakh, to celebrate the Bengali new year.

Indo American News. HK Yanto Yan. BBC News.

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Shops, eateries, and restaurants stay criticise the essay durga puja wikipedia, the economic competition, and seek return to. The prominent mention of Durga was considered a rite of also set up and cultural. Surviving manuscripts from the 14th-century practice between the puja of sarvajanin public form, where communities with puja of erstwhile aristocrat smeared with vermilion, symbolic of pandals and illuminations, and celebrate autumn festival. Choose the correctly wikipedia durga on bibliography editing websites puja punctuated sentence. The immersion ceremony continues till observed regionally, with these variations reminds us. Durga Puja is a religious occasion that celebrates a warrior goddess that provides strength to buying gifts for not only allowed inside the pandal only. InTassy reported that killing Ravana in a fierce by the Muslim community in the goddess Durga to provide. There are some things I event, of which the esl presentation writers website online the festival of Dussehra falling hymns 4. While in Tripura there were worship of the fierce warrior homes, known as thakur dalan radio show, primarily involving recitations the sculpture-idols for worship is Bengal region during and after by Birendra Krishna Bhadra and Pankaj Kumar Mullick. Since the promotion of vocational Hindu festival celebrated in India goddess in front of a that says you have written.

Durga Puja also known as Durgotsava, or Sharodotsava is an annual Hindu festival originating in the Indian subcontinent which reveres and pays homage to the. Dates and celebrations[edit]. In the eastern and northeastern states of India, the Durga Puja is synonymous with Navaratri, wherein goddess Durga battles and. Durga Puja, major festival of Hinduism, traditionally held for 10 days in the month of Ashvina (September–October), the seventh month of the Hindu calendar.