how to write a test bench

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How to write a test bench

Specs need to be understood clearly and a test plan, which basically documents the test bench architecture and the test scenarios test cases in detail, needs to be made. The outputs of the design are printed to the screen, and can be captured in a waveform viewer as the simulation runs to monitor the results Generating Test Vectors So do we have to write the test bench code in separate module and also the same for the module under test?

But the main module was created with reference to 3 separate modules Test Benches. Using Memory in a testbench This is typically used how to write test benches in verilog for edge transitions. Verilog write how benches in to test Events in Verilog Some explanations for all of these items: 1 Parameter definitions Parameterize items in your test bench - this makes it much easier for you and others to read and understand your testbench.

I have no problems creating modules, but I don't know how to create a testbench. The DUT is instantiated into the test bench, and always and initial blocks apply the stimulus to the inputs to the design. Or, you can create new procedural blocks that will be executed concurrently Remember the structure of the module If you want new temp variables you need to define those.

This is because all the Verilog you plan on using in your hardware design must be synthesizable, meaning it has a hardware equivalent In this post, I will give an example how to write testbench code for a digital IO pad. A test bench is actually just another Verilog file! Synopsis: In this lab we are going through various techniques of writing testbenches. I know about writing binary, hex or decimal value, but I am not sure whether it can be done in Verilog or not?

Event control is initiated by the symbol, followed by the sensitivity list. I am trying to write a Verilog test-bench where I have to write output of some registers. For writing testbenches it is important to have the design specification of "design under test" or simply DUT.

It is never synthesized so it can use all Verilog commands.. Testbench is another verilog code that creates a circuit involving the circuit to be tested. We start by looking at the architecture of a Verilog testbench before considering some key concepts in verilog testbench design. Verilog Test benches are used to simulate and analyze designs without the need for any physical hardware or any hardware device.

Here is what I have for the testbench so far. The Verilog you write in a test bench does not need to be synthesizable because you will only ever simulate it! The functionality of this module should be fairly apparent.

If we want to now test this module to make sure it is actually doing what we think it is, we can write a test bench! A test bench starts off with a module declaration, just like any other Verilog file you've seen before.

However, it is important to notice the test bench module does not have any inputs or outputs. It is entirely self contained. After we declare our variables, we instantiate the module we will be testing. Notice the name is DUT. DUT is a very common name for the module to be tested in a test bench and it stands for D evice U nder T est. This line has something new, the initial block.

The inital block is used similarly to an always block except that the code in the block will only run once, at the start of the simulation. Because there is no equivalent to an initial block in hardware, initial blocks are not synthesizable and can only be used in test benches. This is another new line. The syntax is used to specify a delay. In this case this tells the simulator to wait 20 units of time.

This is important because without these delays we would have no time to observe how a and b affect the circuit. Again, there is no hardware equivalent to a delay like this, so these statements are not synthesizable. It is very important to understand that we are still simulating hardware. That means that the delay of 20 units only affects the block the delay is in. The rest of your design will keep chugging away as if there was no delay. This is important because it allows you to specify inputs and wait for the output to be generated.

As with all tutorials, we will start with the Mojo Base Project , so download a fresh copy now. If your test bench is showing up in the implementation tab, as shown above, right click on the test bench and choose Source Properties Notice the Simulate Behavioral Model option now. This is how you launch the simulation. Go ahead and click on the tab that says Default. Click the magnifying glass that looks like it has an X in it.

That will fit the simulation to the display. You should then see the following. Notice how a and b change. Their values match the ones in our test bench and you can see that they change every 20 time units ns in this case. The power of the test bench is now you can look at out.

The previous example is a great way to get you feet wet with test benches, but the circuit we tested didn't have any sequential logic in it. How do you go about testing a circuit that requires a clock signal? To show to do this, we will be testing the pwm module from the pulse-width modulation tutorial. To test this we again will need to write a test bench. An example of what that test bench could look like is shown below.

This first block generates the clock and reset signals. You will use basically this exact same initial block for any test bench that is testing a sequential circuit. The clk and rst signals are initialized to 0 and 1 respectively. After the clock is toggled a bit, rst is brought low to allow the circuit to resume normal operation. It is very important to always reset your circuit before expecting any meaningful output.

Flip-flops do not have a default value and will output x in simulations when they are not reset properly. The last line of this initial block will generate a clock signal forever! The forever keyword is used to create a loop that lasts, you guessed it, forever. The first part of this block waits for rst to fall.

This is accomplished with the negedge signal ; syntax.

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We will be writing one example of each type for the same DUT so that you can compare them and understand them better. We will be creating a testbench for a full adder. You can find the code of full adder below for your reference. As the name suggests, it is the simplest form of a testbench that uses the dataflow modeling style.

We start writing the testbench by including the library and using its necessary packages. It is the same as the DUT. Now we have to port map the internal signals and ports of the DUT to enable the testbench to inject input to the DUT and read its output.

Also, we are using the after clause to create delays. After providing one input value, we give a delay 20 nanoseconds here. Only after a delay, we give the next set of values. We do this to ensure that we give proper time, for output to become stable and observable. According to its name, we use the process statement to generate and inject stimulus. As we know, statements inside a process execute sequentially. The structure of the testbench always remains the same, just the architecture changes according to what method we use.

The component and signal declaration will also be the same. After that delay, we verify the output by comparing them with expected values. We do this using the assert statement. What would happen in the case of an error?

This is the message that gets displayed. For sequential circuits, we will be writing testbenches for a JK flip flop. You can find its code below. We use infinite testbenches to test sequential circuits, mainly due to the reason that they allow using a clock. We can, of course, limit the number of clock cycles for simulation purposes.

In fact, we will do that in the next testbench. Additionally, the infinite testbench is suitable for when you have to test something that is unpredictable. Something like a random sequence generator. The structure of the testbench remains the same from the previous types. The libraries, the usage of packages, creating a blank entity, and declaring components inside the architecture is all done in the same way.

After declaring the components, we define a constant for storing delay time and some signals. After that, we define some internal signals for data injection. Two constants, one for time and one to keep a record of no. After that, we create a process for the clock.

As we know a process without a sensitivity list has to be stopped with a wait keyword. And we also want to make it finite so we use a signal that we have declared earlier to keep a record of the number of clocks cycles. When it reaches a certain predefined number, it will terminate the process. Now, we create another process to inject inputs. That sums up all the normal testbenches in VHDL. The comment box below awaits your queries if you have any. He is working as a student researcher in the field of antenna designing for 5G communication.

He is passionate about electronics and has good skills in modeling digital circuits using VHDL. His passion and interest in electronics led him to dive into embedded systems and IoT. A free and complete Verilog course for students. Learn everything from scratch including syntax, different modeling styles and testbenches. A free course on digital electronics and digital logic design for engineers.

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How to write self checking test bench for uart. Thread starter kalpana. Status Not open for further replies. I would like to know about writing test bench. So please If any body is familiar with writing testbench code, please give me some suggestions. It would be a great help if anyone, who has already written the code can email to me sample code. Any suggestions welcome. I'M quoting here a simple example The name of the file is and1.