A good way to do this is to simply display your contributions in a bulleted list. Not every reader will be interested in reading your entire work. This way, you will have this chapter ready to give them a brief yet comprehensive overview of the dissertation. Recommendations — You should always include at least a paragraph on the practical implications resulting from your findings.
This is extremely valuable for yourself, the committee, and the general reader. You can be rather flexible with your recommendations as long as they are relevant and derived from the findings of your dissertation research. For example, you can list highly-specific recommendations and steps to be followed or you can list more general recommendations guiding the reader towards certain ideas and principles to follow.
Future Work — No matter how much you have done with your dissertation research, it will never truly be finished. There will always be lingering question marks and open ends. By no means does this indicate your work is incomplete On the contrary, no PhD work is ever complete and, in fact, a good dissertation is one that sparks a high level of general interest and motivates further research in a particular discipline.
Now that you have a good grasp of what the general outline should be of your conclusion, it is important to look at how to actually write it. The most important principle to keep in mind while writing your dissertation conclusion is reflection. To illustrate:. These are what you must constantly ask yourself while you are writing your dissertation conclusion.
Usually, you should start writing your conclusion by first taking notes, and you should do this while proofreading the initial draft of your work. In general, you should use the following approach:. In general, there are three main pitfalls you should always avoid when writing the conclusion for your dissertation. Protracted and Rambling Conclusion — A long and protracted conclusion is when you repeat yourself unnecessarily without adding anything to what you are mentioning about points you already mentioned in your previous chapters before the conclusion.
Short Conclusion — This is actually an improvement to a long and rambling conclusion, which wastes valuable time on the part of your audience. This can focus your mind on what the results actually show and help you to sort them in your head. However, many people find it easier to combine the results with their implications as the two are closely connected. The Results section should set out your key experimental results, including any statistical analysis and whether or not the results of these are significant.
You should cover any literature supporting your interpretation of significance. It does not have to include everything you did, particularly for a doctorate dissertation. However, for an undergraduate or master's thesis, you will probably find that you need to include most of your work. You should write your results section in the past tense: you are describing what you have done in the past. Every result included MUST have a method set out in the methods section.
Check back to make sure that you have included all the relevant methods. Conversely, every method should also have some results given so, if you choose to exclude certain experiments from the results, make sure that you remove mention of the method as well. If you are unsure whether to include certain results, go back to your research questions and decide whether the results are relevant to them.
If they are relevant, you should include them. Having decided what to include, next decide what order to use. You also need to consider how best to present your results: tables, figures, graphs, or text. Try to use a variety of different methods of presentation, and consider your reader: 20 pages of dense tables are hard to understand, as are five pages of graphs, but a single table and well-chosen graph that illustrate your overall findings will make things much clearer.
Make sure that each table and figure has a number and a title. Number tables and figures in separate lists, but consecutively by the order in which you mention them in the text. Summarise your results in the text, drawing on the figures and tables to illustrate your points. The text and figures should be complementary, not repeat the same information.
You should refer to every table or figure in the text. Make sure that you including information about the size and direction of any changes, including percentage change if appropriate. Statistical tests should include details of p values or confidence intervals and limits.
You will, almost inevitably, find that you need to include some slight discussion of your results during this section. See our pages: Analysing Qualitative Data and Simple Statistical Analysis for more information on analysing your results. The discussion section therefore needs to review your findings in the context of the literature and the existing knowledge about the subject.
You also need to demonstrate that you understand the limitations of your research and the implications of your findings for policy and practice.
Your abstract should be clear and understandable to a non-specialist, so avoid specialist vocabulary as far as possible, and use simple sentence structures over longer more complex constructions. You can find a list of phrases for abstract writing here. Most abstracts are written in the present tense, but this may differ in some disciplines, so find examples to inform your decision on how to write. You can explore some key phrases to use in abstract writing here.
Although it is important to draft your research aims and objectives early in the research process, the introduction will be one of the last sections you write. When deciding on how much context and which definitions to include in this section, remember to look back at your literature review to avoid any repetition. It may be that you can repurpose some of the early paragraphs in the literature review for the introduction. You only need one research aim, and this is likely to change as your dissertation develops through the literature review.
Keep returning to your research aim and your aspirations for the project regularly to help shape this statement. What are the research objectives? How are they different from research questions? Research objectives and questions are the same thing — the only difference is how they are written!
The objectives are the specific tasks that you will need to complete — the stepping stones — that will enable you to achieve your overall research aim. You will usually have research objectives, and their order will hep the reader to understand how you will progress through your research project from start to finish. If you can achieve each objective, or answer each research question, you should meet your research aim!
For more ideas on how to write research objectives, take at look at this list of common academic verbs for creating specific, achievable research tasks and questions. We have an online study guide dedicated to planning and structuring your literature review.
What is the purpose of the methodology section? The methodology outlines the procedure and process of your data collection. You should therefore provide enough detail so that a reader could replicate or adapt your methodology in their own research.
While the literature review focuses on the views and arguments of other authors, the methodology puts the spotlight on your project. Two of the key questions you should aim to answer in this section are:. The methodology chapter should also justify and explain your choice of methodology and methods.
At every point where you faced a decision, ask: Why did choose this approach? Why not something else? How did this decision contribute to answering my research questions? Although most students write their methodology before carrying out their data collection, the methodology section should be written in the past tense, as if the research has already been completed.
You may also need to include information on epistemology and your philosophical approach to research. You can find more information on this in our research planning guide. What should I include in the methodology section? Research paradigm: What is the underpinning philosophy of your research? How does this align with your research aim and objectives? Methodology : Qualitative or quantitative? What are the advantages of your chosen methodology, and why were the other options discounted?
Should I reflect on my position as a researcher? If you feel your position as a researcher has influenced your choice of methods or procedure in any way, the methodology is a good place to reflect on this. Positionality acknowledges that no researcher is entirely objective: we are all, to some extent, influenced by prior learning, experiences, knowledge, and personal biases. T he purpose of this section is to report the findings of your study.
In quantitative research, the results section usually functions as a statement of your findings without discussion. Results sections generally begin with descriptive statistics before moving on to further tests such as multiple linear regression, or inferential statistical tests such as ANOVA, and any associated Post-Hoc testing. Presenting qualitative data. In qualitative studies, your results are often presented alongside the discussion, as it is difficult to include this data in a meaningful way without explanation and interpretation.
In the dsicussion section, aim to structure your work thematically, moving through the key concepts or ideas that have emerged from your qualitative data. Use extracts from your data collection - interviews, focus groups, observations - to illustrate where these themes are most prominent, and refer back to the sources from your literature review to help draw conclusions. Here's an example of how your data could be presented in paragraph format in this section:. In analysing the interview data, two themes emerged which will be discussed in this section.
These themes were: the complexity and challenges of working with families and the professional satisfaction and challenges of program planning for children in preschool or childcare. Introduction to the key themes identified from the interviews. For each of these graduates, their work with children was clearly the area of their professional lives that was bringing the most satisfaction, although there were some challenges identified. In the interviews, the data reveal that they were all seeking ways to improve their pedagogy and achieving success in different ways….
Summary of theme A identified from the data. Angela suggested that in her second year of teaching she had changed in that she was programming in a "more child oriented" way. She discussed this change:. One of the things I've changed is this idea of herding children through the Kinder day: they go from indoor play to snack time to the mat and so on. How I do it now is that I have a lot of different things happening at once.
I'll have a small group on the mat and there might be some children sitting down and having a snack and there's still some children in home corner playing. Specific example from your interviews to support this theme, embedded as a direct quotation. These comments seem to provide evidence that Angela is growing professionally for two reasons. First, the ability to identify changes in her program suggests to me that she has deeper pedagogical knowledge gained through critical reflection on her practice, and second, there is congruence between her expressed beliefs and the practice she describes… This is supported by… Source A; Source B.
Refer back to texts from the literature review that support your conclusions. Example from 'Reporting and discussing your findings ', Monash University. What should I include in the discussion section? The purpose of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and discuss these against the context of the wider literature.
This section should also highlight how your research has contributed to the understanding of a phenomenon or problem: this can be achieved by responding to your research questions. Though the structure of discussion sections can vary, a relatively common structure is offered below:. Here are some final top tips for writing your discussion section:.
How do I avoid repetition in the conclusion? A well-structured conclusion is likely to include the following:. Your conclusion should be clear, succinct and provide a summary of everything that has been learned as a result of your research project.
What supervisors expect from their dissertation students:. What you can expect from your supervisor:. Making the most of your supervision meetings. Meeting your supervisor can feel daunting at first but your supervision meetings offer a great opportunity to discuss your research ideas and get feedback on the direction of your project. Here are our top tips to getting the most out of time with your supervisor:. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older.
This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Search this Guide Search. Dissertations and research projects Online study guides for every stage of your research project, from planning to writing up. Also includes advice on writing a remote dissertation while social distancing measures are in place. Abstracts What is an abstract? You may also want to set the scene for the project and give some brief contextual information.
Give one summary sentence per section of the dissertation, including your key findings and conclusions. Remember, the abstract is designed to inform the reader about the key aspects of the project, rather than teasing them with a sense of mystery! What style of writing should I use in the abstract? Introductions What should the introduction include? Your introduction should cover the following points: Provide context and set the scene for your research project using literature where necessary.
Explain the rationale and value of the project. Provide definitions and address general limitations in the literature that have influenced the topic or scope of your project. The research aim is a mission statement, that states the main ambition of your project. In other words, what does your research project hope to achieve? How have representations of national identity and culture in Olympic opening ceremonies changed over time? To analyse how national identity and Chinese culture were presented in the opening ceremony for the Beijing Olympics for both domestic and international audiences.
How were national identity and Chinese culture presented in the opening ceremony for the Beijing Olympics for both domestic and international audiences? To assess how the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics impacted lasting public perceptions of Chinese culture and national identity What long-term impacts did the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics have on public perceptions of Chinese culture and national identity?
Literature review We have an online study guide dedicated to planning and structuring your literature review. Public opinion about establishing such a plant is taken by conducting a survey. The results of the survey suggest that the people of Tripoli understand the need of a WTE plant and ensure their cooperation for the separate household food waste if provided with the containers by the municipal authorities.
The food waste to energy generation plant provides a solution for both household food waste management in Tripoli and generating adequate amount of electricity to meet the rising demand. An informal session of interviews has been conducted with the experts from Energy Agency of Libya.
The opinion and observation based data collection in done in order to adequately opt the interpretivist approach of research. All five respondents recommended the idea of establishing an AD plant in Tripoli-Libya. The plant location selected in the research has also been validated by their comments and suggestion as appropriate location for establishing a plant.
The research provide solution for both; waste management in Tripoli and introduction of sustainable energy generation method in Libya, they said. A detailed feasibly study is conducted including technical details such as amount of biogas generation, plant type, equipment sizing, and proposed location for the plant.
Initial finances, operation and management cost of the proposed AD plant are estimated in the financial analysis of the proposed plant. Life cycle assessment is compared with the food waste management to evaluate the environmental effects of the plant.
The analysis suggests that the proposed AD plant is economically, technically and ecologically feasible to establish on 3 rd Ring Road in Tripoli. Some of the limitations and difficulties involved in the process of digestion or establishing a digestion plant are listed as follows;. Since many WTE technologies are designed to handle mixed type to food waste such as solid waste and municipal waste etc.
Running the plant with specifically food waste is difficult as food waste makes comparatively less amount than MSW as a whole. Some other WTE challenges include high capital cost, waste-gas cleanup, regulatory hurdles, and conversion efficiency. Since domestic utilization of generated electricity is a primary objective, it adds a limitation where even distribution of electricity distribution in domestic buildings is not possible if the plant is located outside the residential area.
This issue can be resolved by centralizing a substation for the proper transmission and distribution. Since accuracy of the estimated analysis depends entirely on the data, missing fields effect the accuracy of the estimations. Since survey is conducted among non-technical people and represents their views, no amount of primary data is available that accurately estimates the energy generation from amount of food or biogas generation.
The calculations of estimation of biogas yield and energy generation are based on the equations taken from secondary resources thus can be erroneous. This study is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of establishing a large scale plant to provide an alternative and renewable energy solution. The whole idea is applicable and implementable in the proposed area. Instead, in the future, the idea can be evaluated for the individual high-rise buildings to make them self-sufficient in energy demand and supply and to reduce the load on nation electricity grid.
A cross-national study involving cost-benefit analysis of family-sized digesters in Tripoli is yet to analyze in order to predict the future of biogas technology in Libya. Information about government subsidy on renewable energy generation plants in Tripoli is important but unknown yet.
This study revolves around the utilization of food waste collected from residential buildings only. Although hotels, restaurants, and canteens can also provide a considerably high amount of food waste and it is relatively easy for them to collect it separately. Thus further work can be based on the food waste collection from the food consumption areas. It is important to remember that there is no need to restate the research objectives in the conclusion. Your statements should incorporate answers to research questions without you having to repeat those questions.
Here is another example of dissertation conclusion. As mentioned before, the conclusion chapter gives you that final opportunity to restate what your research study intended to achieve, what approach you took in the process, where findings you came up as a result of your study, and whether or not they were according to your expectations. In short, a conclusion section needs to provide an overview of the building blocks of your research.
It is common to use a reflective style of writing here, rather than simply restating what you have already wrote in the previous chapters. This approach will also help you to avoid repetition. For example, if there were limitations of your chosen research methodology then you might want to briefly state whether or not that could have influenced the results of your research study.
You can also highlight any new insights that you recorded during the process. Focus more on the positives of your study although you will be expected to concisely state the limitations of your research as well. The research approach employed for this research study provided a new insight into B even though it limited the generalizability of findings.
Although it is common to provide recommendations for future research work in the discussion chapter, it will be a good idea to provide an overview of those endorsements in the conclusion chapter with a focus on practical and theoretical consequences of your results. Practitioners should consider A and B based on these conclusion…. Further research needs to be conducted for better understanding in regards to the implications of these findings….
The effects of the relationship between A and B are still unclear, and so further research must be conducted Research pertaining to a dissertation or thesis is usually expected to discover, enlighten and to educate rather than framing the results as essentials for practitioners and policy makers. Any recommendations related to business, application and strategy should be presented as propositions to avoid overstating the appositeness of your work.
Never undermine your research work when making propositions for future research. Your work should be recognised as complete, thorough and reliable without the need of further research to confirm your conclusions. Here are some ideas to demonstrate how this is done;. Again, it is recommended to avoid repetition. You do not want to reiterate what you have already discussed in the previous chapter. Writing a dissertation is no mean feat because it requires complete dedication and attention to detail in order to secure a good grade.
Even the very first part of your dissertation - topic selection can become a cumbersome task because of the need to select a topic with sufficient amount of literature available on it. Despite putting in a lot of efforts, you might still end up with a grade which is well below your own expectations which is why it is sometimes better off to approach professionals providing dissertation writing services so that the complexities surrounding a top quality dissertation are handled by people with specialised skill set.
As we approach the conclusion of this piece, it should be clear by now as to what students are expected to do in the final phase of their dissertations. In short, they should have a clear idea about how to write a dissertation conclusion. Finally, it is an important not let yourself down by writing a mediocre conclusion and consequently lose on crucial marks.
The hard part of your dissertation is already completed so it is worthwhile to put in a concentrated effort to end on a high and impress your supervisor. Whether it is your dissertation introduction, literature review, methodology, conclusion or any other chapter, our expert dissertation writers can help you succeed. With our dissertation chapter writing service, you can be confident of having your individual chapters completed to your school's exact guidelines.
Click here to learn more about our dissertation chapter writing service. Find out how our dissertation services can help you. How to Write Methodology for Dissertation March 9, How to Write the Findings of a Dissertation May 17, Published by Jamie Isabelle at March 21, Revised on April 20, Table of Contents. Dissertation Conclusion Guidelines Dissertation conclusion is a core element of your dissertation or thesis paper which is why you will be required to follow a specific set of guidelines in order to showcase the findings of your study in a logical manner.
How to Start a Dissertation Conclusion Always write your conclusion in a clear and simple language. TIP Do not introduce any new information, arguments, meanings and interpretations in the conclusion chapter. What to Write in a Conclusion An important question that one must address before writing a dissertation conclusion is what to write in a conclusion?
Structuring a Dissertation Conclusion While writing a dissertation conclusion, you must be particular about the fact that it gives reflection of a cohesive argument and supports the points you have covered in the main body. Dissertation Conclusion Limitations Every dissertation is likely to suffer from limitations which is precisely the reason why students must acknowledge and appropriately address them.
Dissertation Conclusion Length Another important question that you might want to address in the final phase of your research work is how long should dissertation conclusion be? Addressing Research Questions in Dissertation Conclusion Make sure that you start your conclusion chapter by directly addressing the research questions or the research problem that your dissertation or thesis intended to address. Dissertation Conclusion Example No matter how much you dig into the details of writing a conclusion for your dissertation, it is always nice to have a look at a full-fledged example for guidance purpose.
How to Write Dissertation Conclusion Example Here is a dissertation conclusion example of a dissertation that aimed to test a theoretical argument based on an analysis of case study; Proposed anaerobic digestion plant in Tripoli. Chapter 5 - Dissertation Conclusion 5. How would you know until you try? Summarising and Reflecting on Research As mentioned before, the conclusion chapter gives you that final opportunity to restate what your research study intended to achieve, what approach you took in the process, where findings you came up as a result of your study, and whether or not they were according to your expectations.
Tip Focus more on the positives of your study although you will be expected to concisely state the limitations of your research as well. Recommendations for Future in Conclusion Chapter Although it is common to provide recommendations for future research work in the discussion chapter, it will be a good idea to provide an overview of those endorsements in the conclusion chapter with a focus on practical and theoretical consequences of your results.
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