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|Eugenia corrales aguilar dissertation||Individuals with this observation: The struggles and ways of making notes for a user of the nation became increasingly attractive to advertisers. The authors applied serocatalytic models to assess the force of infection FOI from age stratified seroprevalence studies. Later, during the second wave in early October, treatment units were opened in regional, non-university hospitals. All primates tested negative for current infection; however, two different species, Sapajus xanthosternos and Ateles marginatustested positive by PRNT for MAYV antibodies indicative of past exposure [ 47 ]. Viral load detected in plasma in Mayaro infected cases per day post symptoms onset.|
|Sample resume for class a driver||Moreira-Soto, E. Between andit was identified in several countries in the Amazon jungle Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, and French Guiana [ 45 ]. Our findings, in conjunction with information from previously documented spillover events, indicate that close surveillance of these animals and closely related species, whether in the wild, captivity, or households, is warranted. We found evidence of seven potential MAYV outbreaks in the literature. They tested models of time-independent endemicity and time-dependent FOI.|
|Custom dissertation proposal writer for hire||Reviewing estimates of the basic reproduction number for dengue, Zika and chikungunya across global climate zones. Virology methods manual. Although non-human primates are thought to be the principle enzootic reservoir of MAYV, evidence of previous infection with MAYV has been found in a wide range of animals [ 4648 ]. Sci Rep. We would like to thank the Executive Secretariat of Health Surveillance, particularly the members of the team of the Arboviruses Surveillance Management of the State of Pernambuco and V Regional Health Management for their collaborative efforts on the interpretation of the official data for non-Indigenous areas. Government Printing Office;|
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The SARS pandemic taught us the effectiveness and efficiency of measures such as border control, mandatory case reporting and isolation treatment, as well as contact tracing, testing and isolation. It has one of the worst health-care systems in the world, with several regions refusing to share information with the central government.
Our neighbours, including Brazil, Peru, Argentina and Chile, have all been badly affected by the pandemic. So on 17 March, we implemented one of the strictest lockdowns in the world. This gave us time to take stock of the health-care system. Supplies were scarce. And because much of the population lives at high altitude, where atmospheric pressure is low, most of the available equipment was of no use. It was therefore essential to have our own scientific advisory committee and to connect with specialists from across the world to receive real-time feedback and updates.
Science diplomacy has never been so important: it allowed us to access donations of equipment and vaccines, coordinate the rapid transport of medications and design a shared response strategy with other countries. From protesters impeding the movement of ambulances and oxygen tanks, to technicians stealing testing reagents to sell on the black market, the battle became more difficult every day. Internally, I fought ageism from members of the cabinet and the armed forces who refused to take advice from someone less than half their age.
Still, Bolivia has one of the lowest infection rates in the Americas. Working in this pandemic feels like war — or exile. As we strive to make sense of the battle against COVID, my colleagues and I in Lithuania, at Vilnius University Hospital, have started comparing cataclysms that our families have experienced — from military conflicts to the mass deportations carried out by the Soviet Union.
We physicians face a constant struggle with an invisible enemy, anxiety about the future, daily encounters with dying patients, and unbearable strain, fatigue and overwork. In the hospital, the first challenge was redeploying medical staff to work with people with COVID, and setting up new units to treat them.
Everyone had to leave their comfort zone, and it was not easy. Some staff refused; others volunteered. Later, during the second wave in early October, treatment units were opened in regional, non-university hospitals. There, staff resistance was particularly high — possibly out of fear or lack of knowledge. So we invited regional doctors to our virtual meetings, case discussions and internal seminars.
A sense of collegiality and teamwork — that no one was alone on the battlefield — helped medical staff on the pandemic front to keep going. There was chaos at the beginning. Decisions were made on the fly, and orders changed frequently. I have been involved in two expert groups advising the government, but there was no dedicated team for managing the pandemic.
Medical institutions often had to make immediate decisions on their own. Medical staff working with people with COVID were promised extra pay, which was repeatedly delayed by the ministry of health. Greater trust in professionals, and decision-making on a horizontal basis rather than a hierarchical one, would have speeded the response — and boosted trust in government.
In treatment and care facilities, sometimes all the staff, and nearly all the patients, became infected within a few days of the first case. In such instances, emergency assistance was paralysed, and whole departments had to close temporarily.
This caused complete despair. As we face future waves, we need to strengthen resources for health-care workers on the front lines. Clear guidelines must be prepared on how to manage COVID infection in a regional hospital or nursing home, rather than every patient being referred as quickly as possible to a larger centre. Early on, health authorities focused on university hospitals equipped with personal protective gear and other specialized equipment. Now, there are simply too many patients, and each facility must be prepared to diagnose and treat those who are infected.
Otherwise, we risk continuing to lose this war. I looked internationally for advice. Starting with consultations with my UK counterpart and culminating last year with joint tabletop simulations with the United Kingdom and the United States — including one of a pandemic — these exercises provided guidance on how science can assist government in times of crisis.
The connections developed then have proved invaluable this year, because my international counterparts and I met regularly throughout to share data and best practices on virus spread, public-health measures, diagnostics development and roll out, and therapeutics and vaccine trials. Soon after the pandemic arrived in Canada in late January, my staff and I assembled several multidisciplinary scientific advisory groups to help me provide up-to-date COVID advice to the prime minister and cabinet.
As we focused on areas ranging from vaccines and aerosol transmission to children and long-term care, researchers mobilized to share their findings and advice quickly and openly. As a result, science guided decision-making in real time like I have never seen before.
The contrast with some other parts of the Americas has been striking. It has been gratifying to witness public appreciation of, and government interest in, science. This has provided welcome encouragement in such stressful and uncertain times. The sheer objectivity of science can go a long way in a crisis, especially when response is hampered by inaccessibility to data, reagents and personal protective equipment.
To take on future existential threats, nations need to strengthen their science advisory systems locally and globally, and build public trust in research. Understanding the scientific method empowers people to question information sources and to deal with uncertainty, which ultimately helps to minimize the spread of misinformation.
Researchers can help — by openly sharing their knowledge and inspiration, and by helping to rebuild societies in a way that puts evidence at the centre of all decisions. News 21 JUL News Feature 21 JUL News 19 JUL Career News 21 JUL Correspondence 20 JUL Comment 19 JUL News Explainer 20 JUL Career Column 20 JUL Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. University of Leeds. An essential round-up of science news, opinion and analysis, delivered to your inbox every weekday.
Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Advanced search. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Because we observed efficient replication in rhesus macaque and cat AEC cultures, we assessed whether any mutations suggestive of viral adaptation had occurred. In the viral sequences in the 96 hpi samples from virus-infected rhesus macaque and cat AEC cultures, we observed no obvious signs of nucleotide transitions that led to nonsynonymous mutations compared to the respective inoculums Figure 3 , regardless of temperature and animal species.
Our study used an in vitro AEC culture repository composed of various domestic and wildlife animal species to assess the spectrum of potential intermediate and spillback host reservoirs for SARS-CoV Inoculation of AEC cultures from rhesus macaque, cat, ferret, dog, rabbit, pig, cattle, goat, llama, camel, and 2 neotropical bat species with SARS-CoV-2 revealed that tracheobronchial cells only from rhesus macaque monkeys and cats supported efficient replication of SARS-CoV Our data highlight that these 2 animals are potential models for evaluating therapeutic mitigation strategies for circulating viral variants.
Our findings, in conjunction with information from previously documented spillover events, indicate that close surveillance of these animals and closely related species, whether in the wild, captivity, or households, is warranted. To date, there have been several reports published evaluating the suitability of animal models, including cats, rhesus macaques, dogs, pigs, rabbit and ferrets, for testing SARS-CoV-2 infection 32 , 33 , 40 — This finding may be because viral infections in rabbits and ferrets are mainly restricted to the nasal conchae, are dose-dependent and, in addition, the origin of the cells used as input for the AEC cultures may not recapitulate the cells of the nasal mucosa 34 , 40 , 42 , Differences exist in cellular composition and host determinant expression levels along proximal and distal regions of the respiratory tract Therefore, it would be of interest to complement our current repository with AEC cultures from different anatomic regions of animals such as rabbits and ferrets and to evaluate whether ACE2 is the cellular receptor employed by SARS-CoV-2 in these various animal species.
Gultom et al. Future research should therefore include AEC cultures from this bat species, as well as from horseshoe bat species genus Rhinolophus , which have previously been characterized as reservoir hosts for viruses with a close genetic relationship to the coronavirus associated with the SARS outbreak 33 , In summary, our results highlight that in vitro well-differentiated animal AEC culture models can be used as an alternative to traditional animal experimentation models to evaluate and provide insight into the host spectrum of SARS-CoV Her research interest lies with the establishment of primary airway epithelial cell cultures to study emerging respiratory viruses.
We gratefully thank Lia van der Hoek for critical reading of the manuscript and helpful discussions. Table of Contents — Volume 27, Number 7—July Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address:. Highlight and copy the desired format. Section Navigation. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3. Article Metrics.
Related Articles. Gultom, M. Licheri, L. Laloli, M. Wider, M. Probst, M. Holwerda, R. Gultom, L. Steiner, A. Kratzel, T. Thao, H. Stalder, J. Portmann, M. Holwerda, N. Ebert, N. Stokar-Regenscheit, C. Gurtner, H. Posthaus, V. Thiel, R. Ebert, V. Laloli, S. Thao, L. Vicente-Santos, A. Moreira-Soto, E.
Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS-CoV-2 has spread globally, and the number of worldwide cases continues to rise. Materials and Methods. Establishment of Animal AEC Culture Repository We isolated tracheobronchial epithelial cells from 12 different animal species from postmortem tracheobronchial tissue that was obtained from slaughterhouses, veterinary hospitals, or domestic or international research institutes that euthanize their animals for diagnostic purposes or as part of their licensed experimental work in accordance with local regulations and ethics guidelines.
Figure 1 Figure 1. Figure 2 Figure 2. Figure 3 Figure 3. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. DOI PubMed. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin.
Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus—infected pneumonia. Euro Surveill. One Health. J Med Virol. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein predicted to form complexes with host receptor protein orthologues from a broad range of mammals.
Sci Rep. Livestock susceptibility to infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. Limited susceptibility of chickens, turkeys, and mice to pandemic H1N1 virus. Susceptibility of pigs and chickens to SARS coronavirus. The contribution of animal models to the understanding of the host range and virulence of influenza A viruses. Microbes Infect. Influenza virus reservoirs and intermediate hosts: dogs, horses, and new possibilities for influenza virus exposure of humans.
J Virol. Asha K , Kumar B. Emerging influenza D virus threat: what we know so far! J Clin Med. Coronaviruses: methods and protocols. New York: Springer; PLoS Biol. Cathepsin W is required for escape of influenza A virus from late endosomes.
Preparation of antigens. Virology methods manual. London: Academic Press. Determining the replication kinetics and cellular tropism of influenza D virus on primary well-differentiated human airway epithelial cells. Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis. Nat Methods. Mutterer J , Zinck E. Quick-and-clean article figures with FigureJ. J Microsc. Jonsdottir HR , Dijkman R.
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