J Natl Cancer Inst, 20 J Natl Cancer Inst, 11 PLoS Med, 12 :e J Occup Health, 5 J Am Acad Nurse Pract, 5 J Occup Environ Med, 7 Chronobiol Int, 2 Persson M , Martensson J. J Nurs Manag, 5 Medicina Kaunas , 57 6 , 04 Jun Biomolecules , 11 3 , 24 Feb Inquiry , , 01 Jan To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation.
Search articles by 'Candie Books'. Books C 1 ,. Coody LC ,. Ryan Kauffman Search articles by 'Ryan Kauffman'. Kauffman R ,. Abraham S. Affiliations 1 author 1. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook.
The demographic and professional characteristics of the two nurse groups significantly differed and reflected a particular work organization, which allocates nurses who are younger, single, less experienced and in good health to RNSs. The higher percentage of nurses with degrees in the RNS group was probably related to both their younger age and university nursing courses only recently available.
Nevertheless, both RNS and DS nurses in our sample were employed for the same number of hours per week. The comparison between the two groups highlighted that RNS nurses reported lower job satisfaction. Moreover, in our research, reduced job satisfaction was associated with more frequent physical and psychological symptoms related to stress, suggesting a clear correlation between these two conditions, as indicated by other authors.
Our study highlighted that DS nurses presented a lower risk for developing insomnia whereas RNS nurses more frequently suffered from sleep disorders, which influenced their subsequent work performance. These results, in line with other studies, 15 , 58 suggest that RNS work represents a stress factor, which can lead to chronic discomfort and mild somatic alterations, predisposing to the development of psychological and physical diseases.
RNS workers reported lower scores in sleep quality and quantity when they had to work morning shifts compared to DS nurses, suggesting that morning shifts should not start too early in order to permit adequate sleep and regeneration of energy. Our research suggests that night shift work, like jet lag, can frequently induce sleep disorder which, still underestimated, can represent a risk factor for poor mental and physical health as well as for accidents.
Moreover, its cross-sectional design does not permit us to completely evaluate the causal relationship between the work-shift modality and the selected variables. Prospective research in larger samples collected in many health care environments could help us to investigate this topic in greater depth. Our study is one of the few available on the work schedule organization of an Italian general hospital. Our results suggest that workers with rotating night schedule load need special attention and frequent health checks due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects.
Nurse patient care requires a high level of responsibilities and careful attention. Consequently, working conditions should be optimized in order to provide an appropriate quality of care over a hour period. In accordance with the World Health Organization definition of shift work as a risk condition for many health disorders, we suggest that implementing ergonomic criteria aimed at reducing the adverse effects of shift schedules can permit a better organization of health care.
In fact, we can infer that if a shift work pattern is more respectful of the health and well-being of workers, it could improve the life quality of both workers and patients. The implications of stress work schedules could be relevant to the emotional welfare of health workers and their capacity to maintain compassion and empathy for the people in their care.
Moreover, we can underline that a shift schedule prepared sufficiently in advance could be more protective for private life, reducing causes of psychological stress and social maladjustment. Our findings are relevant not only for individual nurses but also for education, service provision, and research. More studies are necessary to better analyze the burden of shift work on the health and well-being of workers and patients.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. Published online Sep Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Shift work is considered necessary to ensure continuity of care in hospitals and residential facilities. Objectives The aim of this study was to highlight if shift work with nights, as compared with day work only, is associated with risk factors predisposing nurses to poorer health conditions and lower job satisfaction.
Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, to July 31, in 17 wards of a general hospital and a residential facility of a northern Italian city. Conclusion Our results suggest that nurses with rotating night schedule need special attention due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects.
Keywords: shift work, night work, health, sleep disorders, job satisfaction, nurses. Methods Design and setting This study was a cross-sectional analysis conducted from June 1, to July 31, in 17 wards of a general hospital neurology-stroke unit, geriatrics, post-acute geriatric treatment, emergency medicine, metabolic medicine, cardiovascular medicine, orthopedics, rehabilitation medicine, neurosurgery, post-acute extensive phase rehabilitation, vascular surgery, general surgery, medicine gastroenterology, cardiology, neurological and post-surgery intensive care, emergency department, and digestive endoscopy clinic and in home care services in a northern Italian city.
Sample In order to determine the sample size for the two groups of nurses, a pilot study involving 25 DS nurses was conducted in April Open in a separate window. Morning shifts 2. Morning shifts 3. Discussion In our study, the response rate was relatively high in comparison with other studies, 3 , 24 , 57 indirectly suggesting the potential impact of this issue on professional well-being.
Conclusion Our study is one of the few available on the work schedule organization of an Italian general hospital. Footnotes Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. References 1. Fifth European working conditions survey. European Foundation for the improvement of living and working conditions. Boivin DB, Boudreau P. Impacts of shift work on sleep and circadian rhythms.
Pathol Biol Paris ; 62 5 — Influence of shiftwork on Greek nursing personnel. Saf Health Work. Costa G. Lavoro a turni e notturno. Organizzazione degli orari di lavoro e riflessi sulla salute [Shift and night work. Organization of working schedule and impacts on health] Firenze: SEE; Melatonin, sleep, and shift work adaptation. J Occup Environ Med. Shift work and health: current problems and preventive actions. Sleep disorders and work: guidelines for health surveillance, risk management and prevention.
Med Lav. The impact of shiftwork on health: a literature review. J Clin Nurs. The long-term tolerability and efficacy of armodafinil in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with treated obstructive sleep apnea, shift work disorder, or narcolepsy: an open-label extension study. J Clin Sleep Med. Shift work sleep disorder: prevalence and consequences beyond that of symptomatic day workers.
Chronobiol Int. Short rest periods between work shifts predict sleep and health problems in nurses at 1-year follow-up. Occup Environ Med. Sleep length and quality, sleepiness and urinary melatonin among healthy Danish nurses with shift work during work and leisure time.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. Predictors of shift work disorder among nurses: a longitudinal study. Sleep Med. Akerstedt T, Wright KP. Sleep Med Clin. The effects of extended workdays on fatigue, health, performance and satisfaction in nursing. J Adv Nurs.
Critical care nurses—perceptions of h shifts. Nurs Crit Care. Psychological, lifestyle and coping contributors to chronic fatigue in shift-worker nurses. Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females. Scand J Caring Sci. Ruggiero JS. Correlates of fatigue in critical care nurses.
Res Nurs Health. Summary preventive and corrective measures for shift workers. G Ital Med Lav Ergon. American Psychiatric Association. Sleep disturbance in nursing personnel working shifts. Nurs Forum. Work-related fatigue and recovery: the contribution of age, domestic responsibilities and shift-work.
Muecke S. Effects of rotating night shifts: literature review. Association of sickness absence with poor sleep and depressive symptoms in shift workers. Socio-demographic and work-related risk factors for medium- and long-term sickness absence among Italian workers. Eur J Public Health. Job satisfaction among hospital nurses revisited: a systematic review.
Int J Nurs Stud. Scheduling and shift work characteristics associated with risk for occupational injury in newly licensed registered nurses: An observational study. Insomnia in shift work. Jamal M, Baba VV. Shiftwork and department-type related to job stress, work attitudes and behavioral intentions: a study of nurses.
J Organ Behav. Measuring professional satisfaction and nursing workload among nursing staff at a Greek Coronary Care Unit. McVicar A. Scoping the common antecedents of job stress and job satisfaction for nurses — using the job demands-resources model of stress. J Nurs Manag.
This is where taking notes during the movie really pays off. No one cares about your opinion if you can't give facts that support your argument. Jordan and Octavia Spencer's chemistry would carry Fruitvale Station even if the script wasn't so good. The mid-movie prison scene in particular, where the camera never leaves their faces, show how much they can convey with nothing but their eyelids, the flashing tension of neck muscles, and a barely cracking voice.
The attention to detail in fight scenes, where every weapon, lightbulb, and slick patch of ground is accounted for, doesn't translate to an ending that seems powerful but ultimately says little of substance. Move beyond the obvious plot analysis. Plot is just one piece of a movie, and shouldn't dictate your entire review. Some movies don't have great or compelling plots, but that doesn't mean the movie itself is bad. Other things to focus on include:  X Research source Cinematography: " Her is a world drenched in color, using bright, soft reds and oranges alongside calming whites and grays that both build, and slowly strip away, the feelings of love between the protagonists.
Every frame feels like a painting worth sitting in. Space may be dangerous and scary, but the joy of scientific discovery is intoxicating. The eerie silence of the desert, punctuated by the brief spells of violent, up-close-and-personal sound effects of hunter and hunted, keeps you constantly on the edge of your seat. Bring your review full-circle in the ending. Give the review some closure, usually by trying back to your opening fact.
Remember, people read reviews to decide whether or not they should watch a movie. End on a sentence that tells them. But revenge, much like every taut minute of this thriller, is far too addictive to give up until the bitter end. But most of the scenes, too sweet by half, should have been in the trash long before this movie was put out. It might not even be "good. Part 2 of Gather basic facts about the movie. You can do this before or after you watch the movie, but you should definitely do it before you write the review, because you'll need to weave the facts into your review as you write.
Here's what you need to know:  X Research source The title of the film, and the year it came out. The director's name. The names of the lead actors. The genre. Take notes on the movie as you watch it. Before you sit down to watch a film, get out a notepad or a laptop to take notes. Movies are long, and you can easily forget details or major plot points. Taking notes allows you to jot down little things you can return to later.
This could be costuming, makeup, set design, music, etc. Think about how this detail relates to the rest of the movie and what it means in the context of your review. Take note of patterns you begin to notice as the movie unfolds. Use the pause button frequently so you make sure not to miss anything, and rewind as necessary.
Analyze the mechanics of the movie. Analyze the different components that came together in the movie as you watch. During or after your viewing, ask yourself what impression the movie left with you in these areas:  X Research source Direction. If the movie was slow, or didn't include things you thought were necessary, you can attribute this to the director.
If you've seen other movies directed by the same person, compare them and determine which you like the most. What techniques were used to film the movie? What setting and background elements helped to create a certain tone? Evaluate the script, including dialogue and characterization. Did you feel like the plot was inventive and unpredictable or boring and weak? Did the characters' words seem credible to you? Was the movie choppy or did it flow smoothly from scene to scene? Did they incorporate a montage to help build the story?
And was this obstructive to the narrative or did it help it? Did they use long cuts to help accentuate an actor's acting ability or many reaction shots to show a group's reaction to an event or dialogue? If visual effects were used were the plates well-chosen and were the composited effects part of a seamless experience? Whether the effects looked realistic or not is not the jurisdiction of an editor, however, they do choose the footage to be sent off to the compositors, so this could still affect the film.
Costume design. Did the clothing choices fit the style of the movie? Did they contribute to the overall tone, rather than digressing from it? Set design. Consider how the setting of the film influenced its other elements. Did it add or subtract from the experience for you?
If the movie was filmed in a real place, was this location well-chosen? Score or soundtrack. Did it work with the scenes? Was it suspenseful? A soundtrack can make or break a movie, especially if the songs have a particular message or meaning to them. Watch it one more time. It's impossible to fully understand a movie you've only seen one time, especially if you're pausing it often to take notes.
Watch it at least once more before you compose your review. Pay attention to details you might have missed the first time around. Pick new points of focus this time; if you took a lot of notes on the acting the first time you watched the movie, focus on the cinematography the second time around.
Part 3 of Create an original thesis based on your analysis. Now that you've thoroughly studied the movie, what unique insights can you bring to the table? Come up with a thesis, a central idea to discuss and back up with your observations on the various elements of the film. Your thesis should be discussed in the first paragraph of your review.
Having a thesis will take your review beyond the plot summary stage and into the realm of film criticism, which is rightfully its own art form. Ask yourself the following questions to come up with a compelling thesis for your review:  X Research source Does the film reflect on a current event or contemporary issue?
It could be the director's way of engaging in a bigger conversation. Look for ways to relate the content of the film to the "real" world. Does the film seem to have a message, or does it attempt to elicit a specific response or emotion from the audience? You could discuss whether or not it achieves its own goals. Does the film connect with you on a personal level? You could write a review stemming from your own feelings and weave in some personal stories to make it interesting for your readers.
Follow your thesis paragraph with a short plot summary. It's good to give readers an idea of what they'll be in for if they decide to see the movie you're reviewing. Give a brief summary of the plot in which you identify the main characters, describe the setting, and give a sense of the central conflict or point of the movie. Never break the number one rule of movie reviews: don't give too much away. Don't ruin the movie for your readers!
Find a place to mention the director's name and the full movie title. If you feel you must discuss information that might "spoil" things for readers, warn them first. Move into your analysis of the movie. Write several paragraphs discussing interesting elements of the movie that support your thesis. Discuss the acting, the direction, the cinematography, the setting, and so on, using clear, entertaining prose that keeps your readers engaged. Don't use too much technical filmmaking jargon, and make your language crisp and accessible.
Present both the facts and your opinion. For example, you might state something such as, "The Baroque background music was a jarring contrast to the 20th century setting. Use plenty of examples to back up your points. If you make a statement about the movie, back it up with a descriptive example. Describe the way scenes look, the way a certain person acted, camera angles, and so on.
You can quote dialogue to help you make your points as well. In this way you are giving your readers a feel for the movie and continuing to express your critique of the film at the same time. Give it some personality. You could treat your review like a formal college essay, but it's more interesting if you make it your own. If your writing style is usually witty and funny, your review should be no exception. If you're serious and dramatic, that works, too.
Let your language and writing style reflect your unique perspective and personality - it's much more entertaining for the reader. Wrap up your review with a conclusion. It should tie back to your original thesis and provide some guidance as to whether the audience should go see the movie.
Your conclusion should also be compelling or entertaining on its own, since it's the end of your piece of writing. Part 4 of Edit your review. Once you've finished the first draft, read it through and decide whether it flows well and has the right structure. You may need to shift paragraphs around, delete sentences, or add more material here and there to fill out parts that are stunted.
Give your review at least one editorial pass, and maybe two or three, before you consider it to be editorially sound. Ask yourself whether your review stayed true to your thesis. Did your conclusion tie back in with the initial ideas you proposed? Decide whether your review contains enough details about the movie. You may need to go back and add more description here and there to give readers a better sense of what the movie's about.
Decide whether your review is interesting enough as a stand-alone piece of writing. Did you contribute something original to this discussion? What will readers gain from reading your review that they couldn't from simply watching the movie?
Proofread your review. Make sure you've spelled all the actors' names correctly and that you got all the dates right. Clean up typos, grammatical errors, and other spelling errors as well. A clean, proofread review will seem much more professional than one that's full of silly mistakes. Publish or share your review. Get the resources to ensure you're aware of your academic responsibilities such as citing and referencing.
Our downloadable, printable guides cover all aspects of university life, from research to writing, and lab work to oral presentations. Not sure what is expected in your assignment? Are you embarking on a research project? Writing a thesis or a journal article?
Our resources will guide you through the process from planning to publication. Skip to content Skip to navigation. Home Essential skills for academic success Brought to you by the Library. Research and Learning Online Having the right skills and strategies for study, assignments, exams and research is crucial to your success at university.
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